1. I found at least three such English and two Chinese books: one of them is Peter Wain, ed., Millerís Chinese and Japanese Antiques Buyerís Guide (London: Octopus Publishing Group, 1999), 266-67.
1. This incident became known as
Teppo Denrai (the arrival of a gun) in Japan after the fact that the Portuguese introduced matchlock guns to the Japanese for the first time in the country's history.
2. Geoffrey Francis Hudson, Europe and China, A Survey of Their Relations From the Earliest Time to 1800 (London: E. Arnold & Co., 1931), 239.
3. Christianity, as a result, flourished in Japan especially in Kyushu, and by 1582 the number of believers in Kyushu alone reached about 130,000 and 150,000 in the whole country, with 75 Jesuit missionaries and 200 churches. From the letter sent by Padre Gaspar Coelho to Jesuit Chancellor dated 15 February 1582: Murakami, Iezusu-kai Nihon Nenpo (Jesuit Japan annual report), trans. Naojiro Murakami, trans. (Tokyo: Yushodo, 1969), 27. Also see Joseph Jennes, A History of the Catholic Church in Japan (Tokyo: Oriens Institute for Religious Research, 1973), 34.
4. They established the East India Company in 1600, two years earlier than the Dutch. Upon arrival in Japan, they formed a factory in Hirado in Kyushu, and at once became equally important as suppliers of firearms to the Tokugawa government as the Dutch; nonetheless, after a decade of trials and tribulations they voluntarily withdrew from the Japanese market in 1623. Martha Boyer, Japanese Export Lacquers From the Seventeenth Century in the National Museum of Denmark (Copenhagen: The National Museum Copenhagen, 1959), 4.
5. The word Namban is loosely defined, deriving from a Chinese word that denotes the native tribes who inhabited southern China. When it was transmitted to Japan, Namban came to designate Europeans as well. In this paper, the definition of Namban Art is confined to those Japanese works of art influenced by European cultures, particularly of Portugal, during the above-mentioned period. See Helen C. Gunsaulus, Japanese Sword-Mounts in the Collections of Field Museum (Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1923), 73.
6. Chinese silk was regarded superior to Japanese silk and this occupied the largest portion of the whole cargoes. See Boyer, Japanese Export Lacquers, 6-7.
7. The relation between Japan and China deteriorated, and they had no direct trade between 1552 and 1644. The Portuguese, trading from Macao, greatly benefited from this situation. Ibid., 7.
8. G. Schurhammer and E.A. Voretzsch, eds., Die Geschichte Japans, 1549-
1578, von Luis Frois (Leipzig: 1926), 15.
9. He received it from the Catholic emissary Valignani Alessandro, who came to Japan in 1579 to establish Jesuit schools to train Japanese missionaries. See Kazuko Koizumi, Shitsunai to Kagu no Rekishi (History of Interior and Furniture) (Tokyo: Chuo Koronsha, 1995), 192, and Mitsuru Sakamoto et al., Genshoku Nihon no Bijutsu 25, Namban Bijutsu to Yofuga (Japanese Art Series, vol. 25, Namban Art and Western Style Paintings) (Tokyo: Shogakukan, 1970), 167.
10. According to Frois, Nobunaga was so proud of the chair that he showed it off to the people gathered at the horse show held in 1581. See Koizumi, Shitsunai, 193.
11. This kind of chair had already been introduced to Japanese Zen temples by Chinese priests around 1200, however, it was not available for secular use. Unlike the Japanese, the Chinese used chairs for a long period, and kyokuroku were popular during the tenth to thirteenth centuries. See Kazuko Koizumi, Traditional Japanese Furniture, A Definitive Guide (Tokyo, New York and London: Kodansha International, 1986), 171, and Nick Pearce, The Chinese folding chair, Mortimer Menpes and an Aesthetic interior,
Apollo 149/445, (March 1999), 45.
12. Extant pieces lacquered in maki-e have softer contours as opposed to angular Chinese designs. See Koizumi, Shitsunai, 196.
13. Akio Haino, Isho to Koyo (design and its use), in Momoyama no Bijutsu (Art in the Momoyama Era), ed. Tsuneo Takeda (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, 1992), 230.
15. In this year, the lord of Yamato-no-Sawa castle ordered the copy of a Resurrection, which was probably produced by a Japanese painter. See Motoo Yoshimura, Kirishitan kaiga to kogei (Christian painting and crafts), in Umino Shiruku Rodo (The Silk Road on the Sea), ed. The Kobe City Museum (Kobe: The Kobe City Museum, 1982), 236.
16. Boyer, Japanese Export Lacquers, 34. Note that he referred to Julius von Schouten, Die Kunst-und Wunderkammern Der Spatrenaissance. Monographien Des Kunstgewerbes. Herausgegeben von Jena Louis Sponsel. XI. (Neue Floge). (Leipzig, 1908), 64 and fig. 53.
17. See Oliver Impey, The Western influence on Japanese export art in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in Nihon Bijutsu no nakano Seiyo Ten (Western Influence on Japanese Art Exhibition), ed. Fukuoka Art Museum (Fukuoka: Fukuoka Art Museum, 1995), 46. See also, Joe Earle, ìLacquer for export,î in The Toshiba Gallery Japanese Art and Design, ed. Joe Earl (London: Victoria and Albert Museum, 1986), 151.
18. See Yoshimura, Kirishitan 236, 252.
19. He came to Japan in 1600 in the service of the Dutch. He was held in high esteem by Ieyasu and not only had free access to his court but was even granted an estate by the Shogun in the vicinity of Uraga, Kyushu. See Boyer, Japanese Export Lacquers, 9.
20. W. Foster, ed., Letters Received by the East India Company From its Servants in the East, Volume IV. (London: Sampson Low & Co., 1902), 169.
21. This is suggested by various authors, for example, Haino, in Isho to Koyo, 235.
22. These objects made for domestic uses are also called Namban wares.
23. Folding chairs, kyokuroku, continued to be used in Japan, but only in temples.
24. Curiously enough, the Portuguese themselves were never concerned with the distribution of the commodities in Europe and left it entirely to other nations. See also J.A. Jorg, Japanese export lacquer - interactions between the Japanese and the Dutch in the 17th century, in Nihon Bijutsu no nakano Seiyo Ten (Western Influence on Japanese Art Exhibition), ed. Fukuoka Art Museum (Fukuoka: Fukuoka Art Museum, 1995), 55.
25. The attitude of the Tokugawa government towards the Dutch was not as amicable as they expected. The Dutch were ordered to move from their settlement in Hirado to Dejima in 1641, and granted almost no liberty to leave the place. The Dutch, however, strongly persisted in the Japanese market and, in the long run, derived large economic gain. See Boyer, Japanese Export Lacquers, 13.
26. For example, 12 Dutch ships arrived in Japan in 1665 and 16 in the first half of 1668. See ibid., 17-18.
27. Because the Dutch never had a good relationship with the Chinese, they solved the problem of acquiring silk by pirating Portuguese and Chinese ships at least until 1622, when they succeeded in purchasing a certain amount of silk from Chinese traders in Formosa. In 1637 they established a commercial relationship with Tongking and secured a steady supply. See ibid., 14.
28. The Dutch had been buying porcelain from the Jingdezehn in China but the outbreak of civil war in the 1640s caused severe interruption to the porcelain production and it ceased in the 1650s. See Impey, Western influence, 47.
29. J.A. Jorg, Japanese lacquer for the Dutch models and decorations in Western styles, in Glorious Past of the Netherlands and Japan, eds. Kobe City Museum & Tobacco and Salt Museum (Kobe & Tokyo: 1993), 199.
30. Boyer, Japanese Export Lacquers, 19.
31. From the record by John Saris, the companyís chief member. It is commonly said that a decade of intercourse between England and Japan never left any important cultural influences in either country, nevertheless, as some scholars point out, Jacobean vogue for oriental lacquer could be traced back to the date of Cloveís arrival. See John Irwin, A Jacobean vogue for Oriental lacquer-ware,
Burlington Magazine xcv/603 (June 1953), 193 -94.
32. 52 trunks, 72 large and small cabinets, two chests with drawers and one table. See Boyer, Japanese Export Lacquers, 19-20.
33. 149 large and small cabinets, 186 trunks, 51 large and small lacquered chests, 10 boards for backgammon, 10 lanterns with shades and 10 shaving-basins. Some cabinets were wholly covered with lacquer and some were embellished with ray skins and oval lacquered plates. Between 1637 and 1643, they ordered the cabinets with red and green interiors instead of black lacquer for their home market. See ibid.
34. 2,675 small lacquered boxes were registered in December 1665 and 3,846 lacquer wares in March 1680. Ibid.
35. See Impey, Western influence,46, and Jorg, Japanese export, 56. and Earle, Lacquer, 158.
36. Motoo Yoshimura, Oranda higashi indo gaisha to shikkogei (the Dutch VOC and lacquer wares), in Umino Shiruku Rodo (The Silk Road on the Sea), ed. The Kobe City Museum (Kobe: The Kobe City Museum, 1982), 218.
38. For the detailed discussion of this piece, see Earle, ìLacquer, 150-59, and Julia Hutt, A Japanese lacquer chest in the V&A, of Apollo CXLVII / 433 (March 1998), 3ñ9.
39. Jan Veenendal, Furniture from Indonesia, Sri Lanka and India (Delft: Museum Nusantaria, 1985), pl. 68.
40. The dating of this chair has not been fixed yet. The Fukuoka Art Museum in Kyushu which featured this chair in its exhibition Western Influence on Japanese Art in 1995 classified this as a Namban style chair produced in the early seventeenth century, though they stated that further study needs to be made. This confusion is probably due to the combination of the gilding and mother-of-pearl decoration. However, as suggested by Christie's London in their sales catalogue of June 1993, when this piece was sold, it seems to me to be the production of the later 17th century. This is because, first, the prototype of this chair has been located in Holland, and second, the Dutch sent out the model chairs from India to Japan in 1643.
41. Robert Latham and William Matthews, eds., The Diary of Samuel Pepys vol. II, 1661 (London: G. Bell and Sons Ltd., 1970), 78.
42. E.S. Beer, The Diary of John Evelyn, vol. IV Kalendarium, 1673-1689 (Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1955), 190.
43. For instance, it is recorded in the Earl of Bristolís expense book that in 1689 he purchased twelve leaves of ìcutt Jappan skreensî [sic]. See Anthony Coleridge, England 1660-1715, in World Furniture ed. Helena Hayward (London: Paul Hamlyn 1967), 89.
44. (c.1696-1765/7). His works were stamped as B.V.R.B.. One of the greatest ÈbÈniste of the reign of Louis XV. He worked exclusively for important marchands-merciers through whom his furniture was supplied to Louis XV, the Prince de CondÈ, Mme de Pompadour, the German Courts, and private clients. See Alexandre PradËre, French Furniture Makers (London: Sothebyís Publications, 1989), 184-85, 194.
45. This practice had already been started in the early seventeenth century, first by the Dutch in 1610 and by the English in 1619. See Yoshimura, ìOranda,î 219, and Irwin, ìJacobean, 193.
46. This japanned cabinet on stand produced in 1712ñ25 in Boston made the world record of this type of furniture very recently: $1,597,500. See Sotheby's (New York), Important Americana, 15 October 1999, lot 107.
47. Johan Frederick van Overmeer Fisscher (1800ñ1848?) came to Japan in 1820 as clerk to the Dutch factory at Dejima in Nagasaki, and wrote in his book that he dealt with a merchant called ìSasayaî in Nagasaki. See Johan Frederick van Overmeer Fisscher, Nihon Fuzoku Biko (translation of Bijdrage tot de kennis van het Japansche Rijk, Amsterdam 1833) eds. and trans., Mitsuo Shoji and Jiro Numata (Tokyo: Heibonsha, 1978), 174.
48. The grounds of these pieces are mostly black but I have encountered one exceptional cabinet with red lacquer ground in a private collection in Oxford.
49. The Dutch were fighting with the French and the English at the time. To avoid seizure by enemies, they hired 10 American vessels between 1797 and 1809 and sent them to Nagasaki. This table was brought back to the US by one of them, Franklin, in 1799. See Edo-Tokyo Museum, ed., Nichibei Koryu no Akebono (Worlds Revealed -- The Dawn of Japanese and American Exchange) (Tokyo: Tokyo-Edo Museum, 1999), 27.
50. Tokyo National Museum, ed., Meiji Dezain no Tanjo -- Chosa Kenkyu Hokokusho, ëOnchi Zurokuí (Report of Research on ëOnchi Zurokuí -- A Collection of Craft Design Sketches of the Meiji Era) (Tokyo: Tokyo National Museum, 1997), 166.
51. Moreover, the Tokugawa government strictly controlled the people under a rigid hierarchy: the majority were not allowed to own luxurious items including lacquered furniture or even for a while new furniture. See Koizumi, Shitsunai, 276.
1. Britain succeeded to open trade with China in 1842 as a result of the Opium War; Russia was expanding eastward through Siberia for many years; and the United States had expanded its borders to the Pacific and longed for trade with China, with Japan being an ideal way station. See Milton W. Meyer, Japan, A Concise History (Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1993), 119-20.
2. Britain succeeded to open trade with China in 1842 as a result of the Opium War; Russia was expanding eastward through Siberia for many years; and the United States had expanded its borders to the Pacific and longed for trade with China, with Japan being an ideal way station. See Milton W. Meyer, Japan, A Concise History (Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 1993), 119-20.
3. There were a number of attempts by the West to open the door to Japan before this. For example, a Russian mission arrived in Nagasaki in 1853 to seek its friendship against Britain and the US, and the US sent missions at least two dozen times before Perry. See ibid. 119-20.
4. Japanese soldiers then were equipped with swords, spears, arrows, and old fashioned match lock guns. See Madoka Kanai, ed., Egakareta Bakumatsu Meiji (The Late-Tokugawa and Meiji Japan Engraved and Described in The Illustrated London News, 1853
1902) (Tokyo: Yushodo, 1973), 4.
5. Hugh Cortazzi, The British in Japan in the nineteenth century, in Japan and Britain
an aesthetic dialogue 1850
1930, eds. Toshio Watanabe and Tomoko Sato (London: Lund Humphries, 1991), 55. and ibid., 327-30.
6. Born in 1807, he was the first British Consul to Japan from 1859-1864. See Ian Nish, ed., Britain & Japan, Biographical Portraits, volume II (Surrey: Japan Library, 1997), 1.
7. The Edinburgh Review, cxxxvi, (1872): 52. See also Toshio Yokoyama, Japan in the Victorian Mind (London: Macmilan, 1987), 106.
8. The Quarterly Review, cxxxvii (1874): 195.
9. They spent approximately one third of the national budget on this sector. Sou Kurokawa, ìE.S. Mosu no manazashi (The eyes of E.S. Morse) The Antique, vol.13 (Tokyo: Yomiuri News Paper, August 1992), 48.
10. Half of them were Chinese, about quarter were the British, and the majority of the rest were French, American, and German. See H. J. Jones, Live Machines, Hired Foreigners and Meiji Japan (Vancouver B.C.: University of British Columbia Press, 1980), 5.
11. The use of foreign personnel by developing nations has become commonplace in the process of modernisation in the second half of the twentieth century, but Japan was the first of the later modernisers to use such aid on a large scale. The salaries paid to the oyatoi were quite high: often double the US average and more than double the European average. See ibid. 5,11. Therefore, most oyatoi were quickly replaced by Japanese and by the turn of the century only a few of them remained. See Meyer, Japan, 153.
12. Masutaro Kimura, ed., Honpo Boeki Nenkan (The Trade Year Book of Japan 1924) (Tokyo: Kaigai Jijo Kenkyukai, 1924), 4.
13. This was mainly due to the shift of silk trades. Those, originally exported chiefly to Britain at the early period, started to be shipped more to the US and France. See Fukuju Unno, Meiji no Boeki (Trades in the Meiji Era) (Tokyo: Koshobo, 1967), 14-17.
14. Halsbury, ìHalsbury, President, Liberal Arts Section, Japan-British Exhibition to the editor of the Timesî Times 20 Nov. 1909.
15. Among 5,000 foreigners living in Yokohama in 1893, 3,300 were Chinese (mostly craftsmen), 800 British, 250 American, 105 German, and 130 French. See Kanagawa Prefectural Government, The History of Kanagawa (Yokohama: Kanagawa Prefectural Government, 1985), 192.
16. Built in 1883 by Josiah Conder. See footnote 37 below.
17. Chisaburo F. Yamada, Dialogue in Art, Japan and the West (London, Paris & Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1976), 167.
18. ìThe value of goods sent to Philadelphia from Japan is estimated at $200,000. The Government has expended about $300,000 in forming a Government collection, and about $70,000 in making advances to various manufacturers to them in making a credible display. In addition to this, a sum of $300,000 was appropriated for general expenses. . . Frank H. Norton, Illustrated Historical Register of the Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876, and of the Exposition Universelle, Paris, 1878 (New York: American News Co., c.1879), 248.
19. Sometimes referred as ëKiriu Kosho Gaishaí. It started with an equity financed from the government, It owned three factories, employed large number of craftsmen and artists, and sent numerous products to world exhibitions. It remained quite active until the beginning of the 1880s operating branches in New York and Paris. But from the mid-1880s its business gradually deteriorated and, in 1891, finally declared bankrupt. See Toyojiro Hida, Kiritsu Kosho Kaisha Kogei Shitazu-shu, Meiji no Yushutsu Kogei Zuan (Kiritsu Kosho Kaisha : the First Japanese Manufacturing and Trading Co.) (Kyoto : Kyoto Shoin, 1987), 130.
20. This figure includes all exhibitions held abroad, not only World Exhibitions. See Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 125.
21. Because these designs were very popularly used by such exhibitors, from around 1881, these became available to anybody who was involved in crafts export. See ibid., 13, 16.
22. This governmental sector set up in 1876 was called seihin gazu kakari in Japanese. This group was closely related to the editing of Onchi Zuroku. See Hiroko Yokomizo, Meiji seifu ni yoru kougei zuan no shido ni tsuite (Regarding the instructions made by the Meiji government on crafts designs)
in Tokyo Kokuritsu Hakubutsukan Kiyo, no.34 (March 1999), 15.
23. See ibid., 22-26, 171. It is also known that they used approximately 15 French books and journals in preparation for 1878 Paris Exhibition. For example, Edouard Lievre, Les Arts Decoratifs (Paris: 1872), and Jules Verchere, L'Ameublement (place and year not known). However, the relations between Onchi designs and these sources have not been clearly identified yet.
24. (1834-1904) Born in Glasgow, influential designer and writer on decorative arts. He became a lecturer in the Department of Science & Art, South Kensington, in 1854. When he visited Japan, he also worked for Tiffany, New York and collected Japanese objects for them. See Oliver Checkland, Britainís Encounter with Meiji Japan, 1868-1912 (London: Macmilan, 1989), 203-06, and John Fleming and Hugh Honour, The Penguin Dictionary of Decorative Arts (London: Viking, 1989), 258.
25. Checkland, Britainís Encounter., 205.
26. Checkland, Britainís Encounter., 205.
27. Kanagawa Prefectural Museum, ed., Kanagawa-ken Bijutsu Fudo-ki, Meiji, Taisho-hen (Yokohama Directory in the Meiji, Taisho Era) (Yokohama: Yurindo, 1971), 22.
28. Koizumi, Traditional, 174.
29. Koizumi, Shitsunai, 342-44.
30. Even today, it is not unusual that Japanese houses consist of one or two traditional rooms where people sit down on tatami floors, and thus, people do not wear shoes in their houses.
31. It is recorded that 1,372 containers of furniture were imported to Japan in 1868. See Kanagawa Prefectural Museum, Kanagawa-ken, 16.
32. (1832-1861) Dutch. Arrived in Japan in 1858 as an interpreter for the first American consul Townsend Harris. He stayed in Edo between 1859 and 1861. See ibid. 17-18.
33. Because of the high payment he received from Heusken, he changed his occupation to a chair maker. See Koizumi, Shitsunai, 310.
34. Kanagawa Prefectural Museum, Kanagawa-ken, 18.
35. A Briton who owned the furniture retailer, H. J. Gorman & Co., in Yokohama. See Takeyoshi Hori, ìYokohama kagu o tsukutta hitobito (The people who produced Yokohama furniture), Yokohama Archives of History News (Yokohama) (January 1996), 4.
36. He was a box maker in Motomachi, Yokohama. See Yokohama City Hall, Yokohama-shi Shiko, Sangyo-hen (History of Yokohama: Industry) (Tokyo: Meicho Shuppan, 1973), 655.
37. This is a nickname of Yasuzo Hara, a harness maker. After mastering the techniques of upholstery from Gorman, he continued to serve foreign clients with chair production and repairs. Later, his apprentice started the first shop specialising in upholstered chairs in Japan. See Kanagawa Prefectural Museum, Kanagawa-ken, 19.
38. The hotel was designed by Kisuke Shimizu. It was burned down in 1872. See Yoichi Yokoha, Nishiki-e kara mita bunmei kaika no fuzoku (Modernisation in the Meiji era documented in wood block prints), The Antique vol.13 (Tokyo: Yomiuri News Paper, August 1992): 94.
39. (1852-1920) Born in London. Between 1873 and 1875, he worked in the office of William Burges, and in 1876 he was invited by the Japanese government to work as a Professor of Architecture at the Imperial College of Engineering in Tokyo. He stayed in Japan until his death in 1920. See Checkland, Britainís Encounter, 208ñ29.
40. Amongst them, well-known were followings: Kobayashi Yoshio Shoten, that was awarded a prize for the interior of the US embassy in 1890; Sugitaya, which dealt with a wide clientele, providing furniture to governmental buildings, banks, and palaces, specialising in the hybrid style; Kinoshita, which mainly worked forthe Ministry of Foreign Affairs, specialising in Neo-classical style; Ozawa Shintaro Shoten, which chiefly worked for the Imperial Household Agency, and specialised in Renaissance style. See Koizumi, Shitsunai, 317-18.
41. (1861-1947) Born in Ghent, architect and designer. He designed furniture for the houses he built in Brussels. Amongst them, Tassel House (1892-1893) was the first monument of the fully developed Art Nouveau style. See Simon Jervis, Dictionary of Design and Designers (London, Penguin Books, 1984), 241-42.
42. (1863-1957) Born in Antwerp. He was much influenced by the writings of John Ruskin and William Morris. He designed furniture, interior, graphics, silver, and ceramics. See ibid., 492ñ93.
43. Concerning the architectural style of this palace, the argument as to whether it was to be made in Western style in stone or in Japanese with wood, lasted for nineteen years. See ibid., 325.
44. Koizumi, Shitsunai, 314-15.
45. An English daily evening paper (except Sunday) issued since 1867 targeting foreigners in the Yokohama settlement edited by Reddie Black.
46. It is known, for example, that Takarada Shokai in Yokohama sold every Western household item and even rented things for parties for foreigners. See Kanagawa Prefectural Museum, Kanagawa-ken, 29-30.
47. Ibid., 26-31.
48. It was not unusual that Japanese and Chinese motifs were mixed up, reflecting the image of Japan held by Westerners at the time. Additionally, the fact that a number of Chinese craftsmen, particularly those from Shanghai, were working at the settlements is an important factor. See Koizumi, Shitsunai, 311.
49. The last one was not a world exhibition but was a very important event in terms of size and the content of Japanese exhibits.
50. Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, ed., Meiji-ki Bankoku Hakurankai Bijutsuhin Shuppin Mokuroku (The List of Exhibits of Artefact in the World Exhibitions During the Meiji Era) (Tokyo: Chuokoronsha, 1997), 62.
51. For instance, the total cost of exhibits sent from Japan to the Philadelphia Exhibition was 236,000, of which the products worth 95,000 were sold at the exhibition, those worth 66,000 remained in the United States for later sale, and those to the value of 75,000 were taken back to Japan. See Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 126.
52. Yokoyama, Japan in the Victorian Mind, preface.
53. Arthur Collins Maclay, A Budget of Letters from Japan (New York: A.C. Armstrong & Son, 1886), 22.
54. Basil Hall Chamberlain and W. B. Mason, Handbook for Travellers in Japan (London: John Murray, various years).
55. A British company established in the Yokohama settlement in 1889 (their address changed several times, from no.12, to no.38, no.167, and to no.22). They had an office in London as well, and were actively involved in the export of Japanese crafts. See Yokohama Archive Centre, ed., Zusetsu Yokohama Gaikokujin Kyoryuchi (Illustrated Yokohama Settlement) (Yokohama: Yurindo, 1998), 66.
56. An Austrian and Hungarian company established in the Yokohama settlement in 1869. They remained in business till 1905. Their addresses were no.51, no.79, no.57, chronologically. See ibid., 73.
57. The leading Japanese curio shop in Japan of the time, owned by Yozo Nomura (1870-1965). The shop was established in 1894 at 1-20 Honcho, Yokohama. See Juro Hibino, ed., Yokohama Kindaisi Jiten (A Directory of Modern Yokohama) (Yokohama: Yokohama Tsushinsha, 1918), 871. See also Masahide Kawaguchi, Meiji no Yokohama no Hito (The Yokohama People of the Meiji Era) (Yokohama: Seiunsha, 1984), 175.
58. Owned by Yasuharu Endo (1868-1910). The address was 6-25 and 26 Uchida-cho, Yokohama. He sent several objects to the exhibition held in St. Louis in 1904 and received an award. See Hori, Yokohama kagu, 2.
59. Hideji Shirado, Nomura Yozo Den (A Bibliography of Yozo Nomura) (Yokohama: Mitsumasa Nomura, 1963), 118-20.
60. The address was 68 Bond Street; later at 127 New Bond Street. They were granted two royal warrants from King George V and Queen Mary in 1919. See Thomas Lawton, Yamanaka Sadajiro: Advocate for Asian Art Orientations 26/1 (January 1995), 85.
61. New York City was the centre of retails and marketing, while Boston became the intellectual hub because of three greatest advocates of Japanese art, Edward S. Morse, William Sturgis Bigelow, and Ernest F. Fenollosa. See Horsley, The Japan Idea Art and Life in Victorian America, (Connecticut: Wadsworth Ahteneum, 1990), 42.
62. It was located between 17th and 18th Streets, Broadway. Closed in 1989. Ibid., Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 43.
63. Opened in 1895 at 4 West Twenty-seventh St., later same year moved to 20 West Twenty-seventh St., in 1902 254 Fifth Avenue, in 1917 to 680 Fifth Avenue. See Lawton, ìYamanakaî, 81-82.
64. Opened in 1899 at 424 Boylston Street. Ibid., 84.
65. Unfortunately, following the outbreak of the Second World War between the US and Japan, the Alien Property Custodian took charge of the Yamanaka offices, and then in 1944, their all inventories were sold. Because 80% of Yamanaka's assets were held overseas, this resulted in their disappearance from the main stage. See ibid., 93.
66. (1867-1940) He came to the United States in 1888 and opened his own shop at 380 Boylston Street. See Peabody and Essex Museum, A Pleasing Novelty: Bunkio Matsuki and The Japan Craze in Victorian Salem (Salem: Peabody & Essex Museum, 1993), 25.
67. This term was first used by Phillipe Burty in his La Renaissance litteraire et artistique in 1872ñ1873. For detailed definition of Japonisme, see Toshio Watanabe, High Victorian Japonisme (Frankfurt & Main: Lang, 1991), 13-16.
68. Started by Walter Horatio Pater (1839ñ1894) and Oscar Wilde (1854-1900) in the late nineteenth century under the influence of L'Art pour L'Art, a concept put forward by Theophile Gautier and Charles-Pierre Baudelaire (1821-1867) in France. W. Pater, a writer and fellow of Brasenose College, Oxford, was the most important member of the movement, but Oscar Wilde was a more vociferous member. Herbert Read, Art and Artists (London: Thames and Hudson, 1994), 10, 35, 271.
69. He was a surgeon who worked for the Dutch East India Company in Japan between 1823 and 1830. During his stay, he searched the country with the assistance of a Japanese artist and collected Japanese art, which he brought back to Holland. His ethnographic collection compiled during his visit was available at an early date to visitors who came to Leiden. See Gabriel P. Weisberg Japonisme: Japanese Influence on French Art 1854
1910 (Cleveland: The Cleveland Museum of Art, 1975), 2, 15, 16, and note 10.
70. Very influential illustrated albums containing lively sketch-type drawings by Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849), a prolific Japanese painter and print maker. The first ten volumes were published in 1814-19 and the eleventh volume in 1834 in Japan. Jack Hillier, The Art of the Japanese Book (London: Sothebyís Publications, 1987), vol. 2, 813.
71. Weisberg, Japonisme, 2ñ3.
72. John Sandberg, The discovery of Japanese prints in the nineteenth century Gazette des beaux-arts, 110/1256 (May/June 1968), 296-99.
73. Kanai, Egakareta, 4-5.
74. Richard Redgrave and Henry Cole. See Elizabeth Aslin, The Aesthetic Movement -- Prelude to Art Nouveau (London: Ferndale Editions, 1969), 80.
75. Reflecting the disorder just before the Meiji Restoration, the Tokugawa government and the Satsuma/Saga clans participated in the exhibition separately. Both claimed to be the representative of Japan. See Mitsukuni Yoshida, Bankokuhaku no Nihonkan (Japanese Pavilion at World Exhibitions) (Tokyo: INAX: 1990), 11.
76. Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Bankoku Hakurankai, 2-32.
77. Yoshida, Bankokuhaku, 78. This number varies according to sources.
78. Harris H. Hayden, Illustrated Catalogue of the Centennial Exhibition, Philadelphia, 1876, (New York: 1876), 156.
79. For example, in 1891, the combined total of folding and rigid fans exported from Japan reached the astounding total of 15,724,048. Lionel Lamborne, The Aesthetic Movement (London: Phaidon, 1996), 44.
80. Dan Klein, Aspect of the Aesthetic Movement , Including Books, Ceramics, Furniture, Glass, Textiles (London: Dan Klein Ltd., 1978), 10.
81. Yamada, Dialogue, 11.
82. (1833-1886) Born in Bristol, an architect, designer and advocate of dress reform. He designed the houses of Oscar Wilde and James Abbott McNeil Whistler. See Fleming and Honour, Decorative Arts, 351.
83. (1827-1881) An architect and designer in London and Norfolk. His culminating achievement was a great cast-iron Japanese pavilion, railed with iron sunflowers, shown at the Philadelphia 1876 and Paris 1878 Exhibitions. See Jervis, Design and Designers, 253.
84. (1868-1928) Outstanding Scottish architect and designer who was the leader of the Glasgow School and a prominent figure in the international Art Nouveau movement. Ibid., 512.
85. Lamborne, Aesthetic, 32.
86. (1834-1903) American painter who studied in Paris and then settled down in London in 1859, introducing the zeal for the Japanese art which had already arrived in Paris. See Read, Art and Artists, 376.
87. (1846-1904) Leading French glass maker. From 1889 he also designed and produced furniture of the lushest Art Nouveau variety with much very delicately executed marquetry decoration. Honour, Decorative Arts, 329.
88. Stephan Calloway, The House of Liberty, Masters of Style and Decoration (London: Thames & Hudson, 1992), 25, and Checkland Britainís Encounter 199.
89. The Studio, first published in April 1893, was edited by Charles Holme and Lewis Hind. It was secured by a number of established people including Frederic Leigton. Arthur Lasenby Liberty wrote as an expert on craft subjects. See Stephen Calloway, Aubrey Beardsley (London: V&A Publications, 1998), 56.
90. Vol. xvii, no. 76, 170-77.
91. (1855-1938) He moved from Australia to London in the mid-1880s. After his first visit to Japan he had his exhibition of Japanese-inspired paintings and etchings in London in 1888, and published Japan: a Record in Colour with 100 of his paintings. See Nick Pearce, The Chinese folding chair, Mortimer Menpes and an Aesthetic interior. Apollo 149/445 (March 1999), 46-47.
92. He commissioned Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo (1851-1942) to design the building to match his planned interior. The house is currently an integral part of Peter Jones Department Stores. Ibid., 47.
93. Anonymous, Famous Mansion for Sale, Mr. Mortimer Menpesí Wonderful House, a Piece of Japan, The Observer (7 Nov. 1909).
94. Anonymous article, East meets West, from Chelsea Scraps, 5(1), 1912, 711ñ807. (Scrap books made by Chelsea Library, London)
1. It is recorded that 560 lacquerers were working in Yokohama in 1897. See Tamotsu Tsuyuki, ed., Hakone no Bussanshi (History of Hakoneís Principal Products) (Odawara: Hakone Bussan Rengo, 1978), 86.
2. Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 137. See also Kenji Suzuki, Kindai kogei no akebono (The dawn of modern crafts), Bessatsu Taiyo 70 (Summer 1990), 5.
3. See Akino Haino, Kinse no Makie (Makie of Modern Times) (Tokyo: Chuokoronsha, 1994), 183; Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 137; and Tsuyuki, Hakone, 124.
4. Lately, some scholar claimed that some Nagasaki lacquer may have been produced in Kyoto.
5. The design book for lacquer furniture called Nurimono Hinagatra Hikae (Lacquerware Design Manuals) dated 1878 survives. Edo-Tokyo Museum, Nichibei, 90.
6. He entered lacquer wares to the First and Second Domestic Industrial Expositions, and was awarded a prize. See Akino Haino, Isho to koyo, 184, and Oliver Impey and Malcolm Fairley, The Dragon King of the Sea (Oxford: Ashmolean Museum, 1991), 76.
7. Shoto Museum of Art, ed., History of Japanese Ivory Carving, Gebori-Okimono and Shibayama of Meiji Period (Tokyo: The Shoto Museum, 1996), 15.
8. Owned by Chojiro Minoda. It was the largest trading company in Yokohama, established in 1859. See Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 113. See also Chamberlain and Mason, Handbook for Travellers in Japan (1894), 100.
9. Owned by Yahei Ozeki. He was originally a pipemaker, and operated an office in Tokyo and a curio shop in Yokohama. The latter, opened in 1862, was named Musashiya, located on Honcho 4-chome. See Tokyo National Museum, ibid. and Chamberlain and Mason, ibid. (1913), 100.
10. The height of the export kazari-dana shown in Figure 27 is 164.5 cm (64 in) and the traditional one in figure 28 is 67.4 cm (26.5 in).
11. Address was Motohama-cho, Nihonbashi, Tokyo (1877). See Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 23. He entered some cabinets, 6 chairs, 10 screens, and others. Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Bankoku Hakurankai, 210.
12. Ibid., 36ñ201.
13. The owner of Minoda, see n. 8.
14. Based in Tokyo. See Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Bankoku Hakurankai 235. No other information is available about this person.
15. (1841-1894) A craftsman of lacquer, wood carving, wood marquetry, and metal works. He was based in Toyama until 1880, and in Kanazawa till 1889, and then in Tokyo. Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 47.
16. (1841-1894) A craftsman of lacquer, wood carving, wood marquetry, and metal works. He was based in Toyama until 1880, and in Kanazawa till 1889, and then in Tokyo. Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 47.
17. Liberty & Co., Porcelain, Bronzes and Curios (London: Liberty, n.d. c.1891), 39ñ40.
18. Jonna Banham, Julia Porter, and Sally Macdonald, Victorian Interior Style (London: Studio Editions, 1995), 11.
19. Liberty & Co., Eastern and Western Wares (London: Liberty, 1896), 32.
20. (1870-1956) Born in Moravia. Prior to 1900, his design was simple but curvilinear Art Nouveau style, but the design made for the Vienna 1902 Secession displayed almost total rectilinearity. His elongated design owed much to Mackintosh. Jervis, Designers, 234-35.
21. Unwin Brothers, ìFurniture, Paper, Etc., in Official Report, Japan-British Exhibition 1910 at the Great White City, London (London: Unwin Brothers, 1910), 219-20.
22. Sold by Nagel, Stuttgart, in November 1998 for DM 490,000 as opposed to the estimated price of DM 100,000. Now it is exhibited at the Metropolitan Museum in New York.
23. See n. 57 in Chapter III.
24. Among them, the name of Ryosuke Kobayashi is recorded in Nomuraís biography. See Shuji Shirado, Nomura Yozo Den (A Biography of Yozo Nomura) (Yokohama: Mitsumasa Nomura, 1961), 119.
25. These Namban panels and a painting were taken out from a triptych travelling shrine. I shall thank to Max Donnelly, Fine Arts Society, for this information.
26. The definitions of marquetry and parquetry can be confusing. In Japan, however, these two words are used quite distinctively, the former (called mokuzogan) meaning pictorial inlayed wood works only and the latter (yosegi) geometrical inlayed wood works. Therefore, in this paper, I followed this convention; i.e. parquetry is not included in marquetry.
27. Soujun Iwasaki, Hakone Zaiku Monogatari (Story of Hakone Works) (Yokohama: Kanagawa Newspaper, 1988), 82.
28. Tsuyuki, Hakone, 58.
29. Ibid., 61.
30. See n. 69 in Chapter III.
31. Von Siebold, Shiboruto Edo Sanpu Kiko (The Diary of Siebold, the Visit to Edo), Mitsuo Nitta, trans. (Tokyo: Yushodo, 1975), 444ñ45.
32. He stayed in Japan between 1820 and 1829, visiting Edo in 1822. See Fisscher, Nihon Fuzoku, 222-23. See also Chapter II, n. 47.
33. Born in 1871 in Yumoto, Hakone and died in 1923. Iwasaki, Hakone Zaiku, 172-80.
34. The first sewing machine was imported from Germany to Japan in 1854: it was made by Wheeler & Wilson, which was merged with Singer in 1907. See Motohiro Hashimoto, ed., Mokuzogan no Rekishi to Waza (History and Techniques of Marquetry) (Tokyo: Nichibo Shuppan, 1995), 136.
35. He built two factories for marquetry works in Shizuoka in 1904-1905, one in Tokyo in 1904, and one in Osaka in 1911. Iwasaki, Hakone Zaiku, 173.
36. Ibid., 99.
37. This was confirmed by Noboru Honma, who owns the Honma Museum of parquetry works in Hakone, by our correspondence in August, 1999.
38. Mr. Honma gave me advice about the dissimilar tonality of varnish used on parquetry wares in the Edo and Meiji era: the varnish of the Edo appears darker due to different ingredients.
39. Liberty sold cabinets of this shape either with lacquered decoration and inlaid wood decoration, at 27s 6d, and 31s 6d respectively. See Liberty & Co., Eastern Art Manufactures and Decorative Objects From Persia, India, China, and Japan (London: Liberty, 1881), 61.
40. It is said that a carpenter called Choji Kameda in Miyanoshita started this new style. See Iwasaki, Hakone Zaiku, 107.
41. Currently, both are in the collection of Peabody and Essex Museum, Salem: museum nos. TD98.14.2AD and TD98.14.3AB.
42. The writing desk and dresser in Figures 45 and 46, were both sold by Christieís (London) on 16 June 1998 for 12,650 and 8,050 respectively. (lot nos. 287 and 288)
43. This was also confirmed by Mr. Honma, when I visited him in Hakone in July 1999.
44. It is also called Goût Grec, or more broadly Louis XVI style. See Fleming, Decorative Arts, 500.
45. (c.1725-1786) He worked at the Gobelins workshop and became a management in 1763 and became a master in 1769. See PradËre, French Furniture Makers, 265.
46. (1726-?) He specialised in the production of secretaire cylindre in Faubourg Saint-Antonine. He became a master in 1766. See Ibid. 291.
47. I have not encountered any signed marquetry/parquetry pieces in the course of my research.
48. Tsuyuki, Hakone, 89-90. Also, I referred to the conversation I had with Mr. Suzuki of Hakone City Hall Archive Centre in July 1999.
49. His shop was located at 1-chome Honcho, Yokohama. See ibid., 69.
50. Liberty & Co. (London), Porcelain, Bronzes and Curios, n.d. (c.1891), 39.
51. Johann Justus Rein, Industries of Japan (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1889), 335.
52. No individual names are specified on the list. Note that the difference in the prices with those produced by Shizuoka producer stated blow, 700-750 florins, is huge. Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Bankoku Hakurankai 62.
53. See Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 184.
54. His address was Hiraya-cho, Shizuoka. See Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, ed., Naikoku Kangyo Hakurankai Bijutsuhin Shuppin Mokuroku (The List of Exhibits of Artefacts in the Domestic Industrial Expositions) (Tokyo: Tokyo Kokuritsu Bunkazai Kenkyusho, 1997), 67.
55. Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Bankoku Hakurankai, 64.
56. Ibid., 224.
57. Other Shizuoka parquetry furniture exhibitors: Kichizaemon Sato, Hyobe Nagakura, Kosuke Uesaka, Chohichi Uesaka. Ibid., 242, 252.
58. Yukichi Miyake. Ibid., 246.
59. This work-box was produced both in parquetry and lacquer. The illustration shown in Libertyís sales catalogue, shown in Figure 44, is that of lacquer, and the actual object shown in Figure 43 is the parquetry one with lacquered panel decoration, recently sold by Nagel, Stuttgart. See Liberty & Co., Eastern Art, 61.
60. Here, I made an assumption that the naming, ìMiya-no-shita work,î by Liberty & Co., designates its production centre properly, i.e. Hakone.
61. Please compare these prices with those of lacquer cabinets sold by Liberty on the same catalogue.
62. There were exhibited by a Hakone wholesaler, Shokichi Tanaka. See Kanagawa Prefecture, Panama Taiheiyou Bankoku Hakurankai Kanagawa-ken Shuppin Hokoku (Official Report on Kanagawa Prefecture Exhibits to Panama-Pacific World Exhibition) (Yokohama: Kanagawa Prefecture 1916), no page nos. indicated.
63. Mr. Honma of the Honma Museum and Mr. Suzuki of Hakone City Hall also told me in July 1999 that they did not think any of the elaborate large furniture in Western style as produced in Hakone.
64. Kimbell Art Museum, ed., The Great Age of Japanese Buddhist Sculpture AD 600-1300 (Seattle & London: University of Washington Press, 1983), 11ñ12.
65. Tansu emerged at the end of the seventeenth century. in Japan and mainly used by the ordinary people, not by the aristocratic class. See Kazuko Koizumi, Kagu to Shitsunai Isho no Bunkashi (Cultural history of furniture and designs) (Tokyo: Hosei University, 1979), 235.
66. His address was 2-3 Honcho. He sent various carved wood furniture in Western style to the Philadelphia exhibition and won a prize. He participated in and was awarded a prize at the exhibitions in Melbourne and Philadelphia. Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Naikoku, 218, 233-34.
67. Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, Bankoku Hakurankai 62.
68. Ibid., 210, 233-35.
69. Norton, Illustrated Historical Register, 280.
70. I assumed that cherrywood was taken wrongly as walnut, in this case. Ibid., 251.
71. Ibid., 248.
72. This is based purely on my own observation. I have not found any documents to confirm this opinion.
73. Mr. Steve Holmes in Los Angeles, a collector of Asian antiques, including Hamamono carved furniture, mentioned to me that its baroque features appeal to him.
74. He owned the curio shop at 4-56 Honcho, and moved to 1-11 Kitanaka-dori. He visited Europe at the end of the 1880s to learn about the export market. See Hori, Yokohama Kagu, 1-2.
75. He opened Shinagawa Shokai, a curio shop, in 1890 at 35 in Yokohama Settlement. Later he moved to 1-20 Sakaicho. Ibid., 2.
76. This popularity is confirmed also by the various advertisements of the curio shops such as K.& K., Arthur & Bond, and Samurai Shokai in Handbook for Travellers in Japan published by John Murray after 1900.
77. It recovered to a certain extent after the First World War, but the Tokyo Earthquake (1923) utterly destroyed this industry. See Hori, ìYokohama Kagu,3.
78. Kanagawa Prefectural Museum, Kanagawa-ken, 54ñ55.
79. Their furniture was signed. The factory was located at 413 Nakamura Machi, Yokohama. See their advertisement in The Japan Gazette, 17 July 1908, page 5.
80. Meadow Brook Hall, Rochester is a part of Oakland University. I thank Dr. Ann Friedman, a curator of collections, for all the information provided.
81. Address: 1-8-23 Sumiyoshi-cho (c.1909-c.1911), 2-50 Hagoromo-cho (date unknown). Not much information about him is available. See Yoshio Takao, ed., Meiji, Taisho, Showa, Yokohama Jinmeiroku - Meiji (Yokohama Directory in the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa Era - Meiji) (Yokohama: Nihon Tosho Centre, 1989), 56, also see the signature of the chair.
82. Hamamono chairs made in Yokohama were sold at around 6- 13. See Hori, Yokohama kagu, 3. The price of a copy of The Japan Gazette was 0.1.
83. The picture of the dragon chair survives at the Yamanaka & Co. office in Osaka. Their factory was located at 2-chome Kamifukushima, Osaka. See Yamanaka Sadajiro-o Den Hensaikai, Yamanaka Sadajiro Den (A Biography of Sadajiro Yamanaka) (Osaka: Yamanaka Sadjiro-o Den Hensankai, 1939), 21.
84. Owned by an antique dealer, Shreve, Crump & Low, Boston.
85. Owned by Steve Holmes, a collector in Los Angeles.
86. Owned by an antique dealer, Nico Veenman, Amsterdam.
87. Julian P. Lord, The Beauty of Teakwood and Japwood Furniture, Suburban Life, 14 (February 1912), 120-21.
88. Address, 1-12 Hagoromo-cho, Yokohama. See Hori, Yokohama Kagu, 3.
89. Unwin Brothers, Furniture, Paper, Etc., 219.
90. Yamanaka & Co., Catalogue of Room Decoration and Artistic Furniture, (Osaka: Yamanaka & Co., 1905), 1.
91. Often referred as the Empire style because of its close relation with the taste of Napoleon I, who became first Consul in 1799. See Fleming, Decorative Arts, 284.
92. Horsley, The Japan, 172. says following: Among the arts popular with Victorian women during the Japan craze, wood carving is one of the lesser known.
93. He set up a department of wood carving at the University of Cincinnati, School of Design, in 1873. His students were mostly women from the middle-class in Cincinnati. See ibid., 121.
94. This was recorded in Zanko Furyaku written in 1844, but is not fully certain. See Norio Suzuki and Satoru Sakakibara, Nihon no Shippo (Japanese CloisonnÈ ) (Kyoto: Maria Shobo, 1979), 209.
95. They include Shogoro Kodenji Hayashi (1831-1915), and Kaisuke Tsukamoto (1828-1897). Ibid.
96. It was dissolved in 1890. Address was Teppo-cho, Nagoya-ku, Owari, Aichi. See Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 48.
97. (1845-1927) He was famous with his even-coloured dark background works being awarded a number of prizes at the world and domestic exhibitions including Philadelphia, 1876. See ibid., 41, and Suzuki and Sakakibara, Shippo, 234-35.
98. (1847-1910) He invented wireless cloisonnÈ in 1889, which won a lot of prizes. In 1896, he was designated a member of the Imperial Art Association together with Yasuyuki Namikawa (they were not related). See Suzuki and Sakakibara, Shippo, 225-26.
99. Please note that these figures are the annual production cost of cloisonnÈ, unlike those listed for the lacquer market in the previous section, which were the total income from export trades.
100. Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 138.
101. Yasuyuki Namikawa did not die until 1927, but he was no longer very active in production from around 1910. See Suzuki and Sakakibara, Shippo, 226.
102. (1831-1892) He contributed greatly not only to cloisonnÈ but also to the whole Japanese crafts industry. At the 1873 Vienna Exhibition, he worked as a consultant to the Japanese government. He worked at Arens Co. in Tokyo till 1879 and moved to Shippo Kaisha in Nagoya. See Impey and Fairley, Dragon King, 40, and Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 127, 129.
103. A merchant for cloisonnÈ and ceramics. The address: 2-3 Honcho, Tokyo-fu. He worked as a representative of Shippo Kaisha in Nagoya for the Melbourne Exhibition in 1875, also sent a number of cloisonnÈ pieces to Philadelphia and won a prize. See Tokyo National Museum, Onchi, 66.
104. There is no information available about the cloisonne craftsmen employed by Fukihara. Some expert on Meiji arts strongly suggests this is a very early work of Sousuke Namikawa, based on its high quality and arabesque motifs.
1. Anonymous The king of London house, King, (29 March 1902), 138.