GLOSSARY


Hakone zaiku: General term for all wooden crafts made in Hakone, including those made on a wheel and those decorated with marquetry and parquetry.

Hamamono: The crafts produced in Yokohama for the export market during the Meiji era

hiramaki-e: Flat sprinkled picture. Lacquer technique where motifs are depicted by lacquer paint and metal powders on a flat surface. On these motifs, a coat of lacquer is applied and dried. It is finished by polishing the surface.

Hokusai Manga: Illustrated albums by Katsushika Hokusai (176-1849): first ten volumes published in 1814-1849, and the eleventh in 1834 in Japan. They were composed of lively sketch-type drawings and had a great influence on Western artists.

ho-o bird: Phoenix, sometimes spelled as ho-ho bird. Common motif applied on decorative arts in China and Japan.

kabuki: Japanese traditional play with highly stylised song, acted by males only.

kazari-dana: Japanese display cabinet. Typically composed of three to four tiers of open
shelves and drawers arranged asymmetrically.

Kodaiji maki-e: Hiramaki-e lacquer wares named after the temple in Kyoto, which is lavishly
embellished with maki-e. Gold plant motifs, typically autumn flowers, such as bush clovers, chrysanthemums, bellflowers and cotton roses are reserved against a black background and diagonally juxtaposed with unrelated designs.

Komo: Means "Red Hair," the nick Japanese gave to the Dutch. Therefore, the period when Japan retained the Dutch as the sole Western agent (1639-1854) is called the Komo era and export lacquer wares Komo lacquer.

Kyokuroku: Folding chair of Chinese origin. It was introduced into Japan in the Kamakura era (1192-1333) and used mainly in temples. The Portuguese reintroduced it to Japan in the sixteenth century.

maki-e: Sprinkled picture. Original Japanese technique invented in the Heian period (794-1192). Gold, silver and other kinds of metal powders are sprinkled on a wet lacquer surface to create designs.

mokazogan: Pictorial wooden marquetry inlay works.

mon: Japanese family crest.

Namban: Means "Southern Barbarian." Deriving from Chinese word that denotes the native tribes who inhabited southern China, when it was transmitted to Japan, it came to designate European as well, particularly the Portuguese. Consequently, the period when Japan traded almost exclusively with them is called the Namban era (1549-1639), and export lacquer wares Nambun lacquer.

oyatoi: Means "employee"'. Those foreigners who were hired by the Meiji government to
progress an aggressive modernisation plan.

ran-yosegi: Means "random parquetry", commonly produced between the end of the Edo and
the early Meiji era. Trees such as zelkova and mulberry are cut into slices of various ~
shapes and reassembled randomly into one sheet so that grains of each slice appear
more distinctively.

sukoku: The 215-year period when Japan kept itself isolated from the world except for
occasional trade with the Chinese and the Dutch.

Shibayama lacquer
: Highly decorative lacquer style introduced by Senzo Onogi in Chiba
prefecture at the end of the Edo era. Finely finished pieces of ivory, mother-of-pearl,
tortoiseshell, horn and other materials are inlaid into gold lacquered, wooden panels,
or sometimes ivory grounds. Shibayama lacquers were almost exclusively made for
the export market.

shippo: Cloisonne enamel.

takamaki-e: Raised sprinkled picture. Lacquer technique where, unlike hiramaki-e, motifs are
painted on a relieved surface. Lacquer, charcoal powder and tin powder and other sorts of
materials are used to compose the raised foundation. More time-consuming and expensive
method than hiramaki-e.

tansu: Japanese traditional chest of drawers of rectangular form without any stands and legs
attached.

ukiyo-e: Japanese wood block prints produced in the Edo and the Meiji periods, which
influenced Western art significantly and started the Japonisme movement.

yosegi: Geometrical wooden parquetry works.


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Contents
Chapter I - Introduction
Chapter II - Pre-Meiji Export Furniture
Chapter III - Social Context in the Meiji Era
Chapter IV - Meiji Export Furniture
Chapter V - Conclusions
Appendix - Footnotes