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Turkey pictures

Syria pictures

Italy pictures


Some people doubt if I got my information right. I do try and use some decent sources and think it is only fair I give an insight into the books I use.

As a general purpose resource I regularly use the Wikipedia on internet, as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopaedia Britannica 2008 Ultimate Reference Suite. Chicago:Encyclopædia Britannica.




  • Lonely Planet guide. Several. Lonely Planet Publications.
  • Turkije. Cantecleer reisgidsen. 1994. Cantecleer BV. De Bilt.
  • Natuurreisgids Turkije. Cantecleer natuur reisgidsen. 1992. Uitgeverij Westland. Schoten.
  • Turkije. Agon cultuur reisgidsen in kleur. Glassen et al. 1993. Uitgeversmaatschappij Agon. Amsterdam.
  • Türkei. Mittleres und östliches Kleinasien. Städte und Landschaften an der Wegen des Apostels Paulus. Klaus-Michael Bull. EVAs Biblische Reiseführer. Evangelische Verlagsanstalt GmbH, Leipzig. 2009. ISBN 978 3 374 02610 4
  • Another look at the East and Southeast of Turkey.Kameel Ahmady (project developer) Union of Southeast Anatolia Region Municipalities. 2009. ISBN 605 60513 0 2
  • Eastern Turkey. A traveller's Handbook. Nişanyan et al. Boyut Yayıncılık ve Tic. Istanbul.
  • Ancient Turkey. A traveller's History of Anatolia. Seton Lloyd. 1989. British Museum publications. London.
  • Klassiek Turkije. Architectuur reisgidsen. John Freely. 1992. La Rivère & Voorhoeve. Kampen.


  • Strolling through Istanbul. Hilary Sumner-Boyd & John Freely. 1989. Redhouse Press. Istanbul.
    In my mind the best guide for thorough exporation of the city. Just text, but soundly researched.
  • Eyewitness Travel Guide Istanbul. Dorling Kindersley Limited, A Penguin company. London. New York. Melbourne. Munich. Delhi. London. 2007. ISBN 978 1 40531 895 2
  • Istanbul. Mohammed El-Fers. Mets' stadsgids. 1993. Uitgeverij Jan Mets. Amsterdam


  • Syria & Lebanon. Terry Carter et al. Lonely Planet guide. 2008. Lonely Planet Publications. ISBN 978-1-74104-609-0
  • Syria. Diana Darke. Bradt Travel Guides, UK. ISBN 1 84162 162 5
  • Syrien. Hochkulturen Zwischen Mittelmeer und Arabischer Wüste. Frank Rainer Schreck, Johannes Odenthal. Dumont Kunst Reiseführer. 2009. Dumont Reiseverlag. Ostfildern. ISBN 9783770139781
  • The monuments of Syria. A guide. Ross Burns. 2009. I.B. Tauris & co. London. ISBN 978-1-84511-974-8
    This is one of those books I love: very detailled, extensive information that helps you "on the ground", beware: not a tourist guide i.e. no hotels and such.



  • Life and society in the Hittite world. Trevor Bryce. 2004. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  • The Turks in world history. Carter Vaughn Findley. 2005. Oxford University Press. Oxford.
  • Empires of the Silk Road. Christopher I. Beckwith. 2009. Princeton University Press. Princeton & Oxford.
  • Phoenicians. Lebanons epic heritage. Sanford Holst. 2005. Cabridge & Boston Press. Los Angeles.
  • Black Sea. Neal Ascheron. Jonathan Cape. 1995. London.
  • The poison king. The life and legend of Mithradates. Rome’s deadliest enemy. Adrienne Mayor. Princeton University Press. Princeton and Oxford. 2009. ISBN 978 0 691 12683 8


  • Byzantium. The early centuries. John Julius Norwich. 1988. Penguin Books. England.
  • Byzantium. The apogee. John Julius Norwich. 1991. Penguin Books. England.
  • Byzantium. The decline and fall. John Julius Norwich. 1996. Penguin Books. England.
  • Het dagelijks leven in Byzantium ten tijde van de Comnenen 1081-1180. Gerard Walter. 1989. Hollandia. Baarn.
  • Byzantium. The surprising life of a medieval empire. Judith Herrin. Allen Lane, an imprint of Penguin. 2007. ISBN 978 0 713 99997 6
  • Constantinople. City of the World's Desire. 1453 - 1924. Philip Mansel. 1996. John Murray Publishers. London.


  • The Ottoman Empire, 1300 - 1650. The structure of power. Colin Imber. Palgrave MacMillan. New York.
  • The Ottoman Empire 1450 - 1700. Andrina Stiles. Hodder & Stoughton. London.
  • The Ottoman Empire 1700-1922. Donald Quataert. New approaches to European history. 2003. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  • Lords of the horizons. A history of the Ottoman Empire. Jason Goodwin. 1999. Vintage. London.
  • Osman's dream. The story of the Ottoman Empire. 1300 - 1923. Caroline Finkel. 2003. John Murray. London.
  • History of the Ottoman Empire & modern Turkey. Vol. 1. Empire of the Gazis. The rise and decline of the Ottoman Empire 1280 - 1808. Stanford J. Shaw. 1976. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  • The decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire. Alan Palmer. 1992. John Murray. London.
  • De Sultans. Noel Barber. 1975. Fibula-Van Dishoeck. Bussum The Netherlands.
  • Suleiman the Magnificent. The man, his life, his epoch. André Clot. 1992. Saqi Books. London.
  • The harem. N.M. Penzer. 1993. The Dorset Press. USA.
  • The enemy at the gate: Habsburgs, Ottomans and the Battle for Europe. Andrew Wheatcroft. Dutch translation 2010. Uitgeverij Atlas. Amsterdam/Antwerpen.


  • Turkey. A modern history. Erik J. Zürcher. 2004. I.B. Tauris. London.
  • The making of modern Turkey. Feroz Ahmad. 1993. Routledge. London.
  • The Turks today. Andre Mango. 2004. The overlook press. USA. 
  • Atatürk. Andre Mango. 1999. John Murray. London.
  • Atatürk en Turkije's weg naar Europa. Maurice Becker. 2008. Aspekt. Soesterberg. The Netherlands.
  • Looking for Osman. One man's travels through the paradox of modern Turkey. Eric Lawlor. 1993. Vintage Books. New York.

Middle East (in a broad sense)

  • The Great War for civilisation. The conquest of the Middle East. Robert Fisk. 2005. Fourth Estate. London.
  • A peace to end all peace. The fall of the Ottoman Empire and the creation of the modern Middle East. David Fromkin. 1989. Avon Books. New York.
  • A history of Islamic societies. Ira M. Lapidus. 1996. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
  • The great Arab conquests. How the spread of Islam changed the world we live in. Dutch version: De grote Arabische veroveringen. Het ontstaan van het Islamitische rijk van Afganistan tot Spanje (632 - 750). Hugh Kennedy. 2008. Bulaaq. Amsterdam.
  • God's crucible. Islam and the making of Europe, 570 - 1215. David Levering Lewis. 2009. W.W. Norton & Company. New York.
  • A history of the Arab peoples. Albert Hourani. 1991. Warner Books. New York.
  • The Arabs. A history. Eugene Rogan. 2009. Allen Lane, an imprint of Penguin. England.
  • The house of wisdom. How the Arabs transformed Western civilization. Jonathan Lyons. 2009. Bloomsbury Publishing. London.
  • The Berlin - Baghdad Express. The Ottoman Empire and Germany's bid for world power 1898-1918. Sean McMeekin. 2010. Allen Lane. London.
  • The crusades. Islamic perspectives. Carole Hillenbrand. 1999. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh. England.
  • Les croisades vues par les Arabes. La barbarie franque en Terre sainte. Amin Maalouf. 2002. Editions J'ai lu. Paris.
  • The crusades. The war for the holy land. Thomas Asbridge. Dutch translation. 2010. Spectrum. Standaard Uitgeverij. Houten. The Netherlands.
  • Medieval Islamic political thought. Patricia Crone. 2010 digital print edition. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh. England.



  • The art and architecture of Islam. 650 - 1250. Richard Ettinghausen & Oleg Grabar. Yale University Press. New Heaven & London.
  • The art and architecture of Islam. 1250 - 1800. Sheila S. Blai & Jonathan M. Bloom. 1994. Yale University Press. New Heaven & London.
  • Islam. Kunst en architectuur. Markus Hattstein & Peter Delius. 2000. Könemann. Köln.


  • Islamic architecture. Robert Hillenbrand. 1994. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh.
  • Turkije. Van de Seltsjoeken tot de Ottomanen. Henri Stierlin. 1998. Taschen/Librero. Köln.


  • Turkish handwoven carpets. Catalog no. 1 - 4. 1992. Turkish Republic. Ministry of Culture. Ankara.
  • Oriental Carpets. Volkmar Gantzhorn. 1998. Taschen. Koeln. London.
  • Oriental rugs. A buyer's guide. Lee Allane. 1992. Thames & Hudson. London.
  • Het Oosterse tapijt. John Tompson. 1991. Gaade Uitgevers.
  • The little, brown guide to carpets. Enza Milanesi Little. 1993. Brown & Company. Boston. London.
  • Halı. Specialist magazine. Several years subscription. London.


  • La céramique Islamique. Le guide du connaissuer. Jean Soustiel. 1985. Office du Louvre. Paris.
  • Iznik. The pottery of Ottoman Turkey. Nurhan Atasoy & Julian Raby. 1994. Alexandria Press in association with Laurence King. London.


  • Islamic Painting. A survey. David Talbot Rice. 1971. Edinburgh University Press. Edinburgh.

Traditional / handicrafts

  • Turkish traditional art today. Henry Glassie. 1993. Ministry of culture of the Turkish Republic. Indiana University Press.
    A massive tome that covers any traditional art in Turkey, wonderful.