The substance of what Scientology proposes as the truth about life, existence, and the condition of man is infinitely more complex than those rather crude Dianetics concepts about an *analytical* mind, a *reactive* mind, and the existence of traceable engrams. All of L. Ron Hubbard's frantic comings and goings were "firmly" based on a genuine philosophy which he had put together, a philosophy which combined, with typically billowing grandeur, the highest aspirations of pure Eastern thinking and the meanest invention of the best science-fiction bravado. Before I can explain the techniques this daring man developed for the achievement of both the knowledge and states of enlightenment he offers, we have to tackle exactly what Scientology says it believes.

If I were to call L. Ron Hubbard eclectic, it would he a mild understatement. The foreword of one of his early books, *Scientology 8-8008*, acknowledges a debt to Sigmund Freud, as well as someone Hubbard claims to have met in the Navy, a Commander Thompson who was supposedly one of Freud's pupils. The foreword then goes on to list a few other people Hubbard feels he should credit as the source for his ideas: Anaxagoras, Aristotle, Roger Bacon - the acknowledgment is in alphabetical order - Buddha, Charcot, Confucius, Rene Descartes, Will Durant, Euclid, Michael Faraday, William James, Thomas Jefferson, Jesus of Nazareth, Count Alfred Korzybski, James Clerk Maxwell, Mohammed, Lao Tsze, van Leeuwenhoek,



Lucretius Isaac Newton, Thomas Paine, Plato, Socrates, Herbert Spencer, the Vedic Hymns, and Voltaire. The implication is clear: Not only is Hubbard well read and immensely discerning, but he himself may deserve a place among such august and heady company.

Hubbard has a very specific notion of where, in the progression and scheme of things, Scientology belongs. In an outline for the lectures he gave as part of Scientology's Professional Course in July of 1954, he blocked out the earlier forms of wisdom which preceded Scientology. He began with the Veda, the sacred Hindu literature, and then moved to the Tao, the thinking of Lao-Tsze and "The principle of wu-wei (non-assertion or non-compulsion) control by permitting self-determinism." This was followed by the Dhyana, a discussion of its source, and the introduction of Gautama Sakyamundi, with extensive quotes from the Dharmapada, verses attributed to Sakyamundi who was considered the founder of the Dhyana. From there Hubbard moved on to the Hebrews and their definition of the Messiah. Then to Jesus of Nazareth, his age, his teaching and healing, his use of parables, his principles of love and compassion amongst peoples, and his Crucifixion. From there Hubbard discussed the spread of Christianity into "The Barbarism of Europe: Religion with fur breech-clouts," the closing of the trade routes, and the appearance of "Western Seekers of Wisdom." His lectures ended with Webster's definition of religion, and the qualification that a religion or religious philosophy had as its goal "the freeing of the soul by wisdom," a goal achieved by Scientology.

Hubbard had, as was mentioned earlier, already lectured on his ideas concerning the *theta*, man's true spirit, and MEST, the product of *theta* in the form of matter, energy, space, and time, as early as late 1950. Codifying his thinking further, he stated what he believed to be a basic truth in a book called *The Creation of Human Ability*. "*Considerations*, he wrote, "*take rank over the mechanics of space, energy, and time*. By


this it is meant that an idea or opinion is, fundamentally, superior to space, energy, and time, or organizations of form, since it is conceived that space, energy, and time are themselves broadly agreed-upon considerations. That so many minds agree brings about Reality in the form of space, energy, and time. These mechanics, then, of space, energy, and time are the products of agreed-upon considerations mutually held by life."

"Reality," John McMasters had said in his talk, "is *agreement*." Everything Scientology postulates is based upon this one idea. Everything said thus becomes valid and acquires its own importance, its own existence as a *consideration*. What this means further is that every idea Hubbard then introduced might very well be absolutely true. His problem was first to define what it was he had discovered to be the truth, and then develop a way through which his followers could achieve the same revelations and states of enlightenment.

The evolution of Hubbard's achievement of his many *considerations* first appeared in print in 1951, in a book called *Science of Survival*. In it he explained that all life is composed of two elements: statics and kinetics. A static was that which possessed no motion and was without width, length, breadth, depth, and mass. Its capabilities were unlimited, and it could be represented by the mathematical symbol *theta* (0). The kinetic he called MEST, the physical universe in terms of matter, energy, space, and time. In *Scientology 8-8008* he summarized all this as follows: "It is now considered that the origin of MEST lies with *theta* itself, and that MEST, as we know the physical universe, is a product of *theta*." Put another way, colloquially, all matter, energy, space, and time are, well, a figment of our imagination. *It* is all here because we are thinking *it*.

It is important to understand what the *theta* and its entity the *thetan* has represented to Hubbard over the years, because what it is, how it has behaved, and why, have produced many


of the *considerations* fundamental to Scientology. After naming it in *Science of Survival*, Hubbard, in *Scientology 8-80* (a book which appeared in 1952 and not to be confused with a subsequent book, Scientology 8-8008) gave more information concerning the *thetan*.

*Thetan*, [he wrote] is the word given to the awareness of awareness unit, the life source, the personality, and the beingness of homo sapiens....It is the person....The *thetan* is a glowing unit of energy source. He seems to himself to be anything from a quarter of an inch to two inches in diameter. His capability is knowing and being. He exudes and uses energy in many forms. He can perceive and handle energy flows easily. The *thetan* enters some time in early infancy. This may be before, during or following birth. He comes in a state of personal unknowingness, desiring to have an identity which he considers he has not without a body. He throws capping beams at the genetic entity, takes over the body....

The "genetic entity" (GE) which had a "capping beam" thrown over it by the *thetan* is, according to Hubbard's explanation, something akin to a trace memory from a thetan's very first MEST body. It appears somewhere in the body's center, vaguely in the area of the stomach, and was what Dianetics had once identified as being the somatic mind. The GE, Hubbard wrote, "carries on through the evolutionary parallel with the protoplasmic line, generation to generation, usually on the same planet."

The *thetan* may be extraterrestrial and has certainly been elsewhere, galactically speaking, but the GE has been on this planet from the very beginning of time.

The genetic entity apparently enters the protoplasm line some two days or a week prior to conception. There is some evidence that the GE is actually double, one entering on the sperm side, one entering on the ovum side....Pre-sperm recordings are quite ordinary....Pre-ovum sequences are on record but are not common....The *theta* being apparently joins the track immediately prior to birth. Its sequence, for


itself, is death, between-lives, birth, all in a few minutes according to some findings, a sequence which is quite aberrative....The genetic line consists of the total of incidents which have occured during the evolution of the MEST body itself. The composite of these facsimiles has the semblance of being [i.e., the GE. Discovering it, Hubbard wrote] makes it possible at last to vindicate the theory of evolution proposed by Darwin....You as a *theta* being may or may not have seen Greece or Rome. Your MEST GE has probably activated a body there, just as it has been...an anthropoid in the deep forests of forgotten continents or a mollusc seeking to survive on the shore of some lost sea.

For eons, the GE progressed, first as a clam, then as something Hubbard called the "Grim Weeper," or "Boohoo," an entity which "spent half a million years on the beach," struggling to breathe, desperate to eat, opening up for food and instead getting an incoming wave in its mouth. The water would be pumped out, and the weeper was in action. Time passed. The GE was involved as a bird, or a bat, was eaten, was a sloth - terrified of snakes and of falling - became a caveman, and even Piltdown man - the now famous prehistoric-man hoax - who became responsible for "obsessions about biting, efforts to hide the mouth and early familial troubles" because "the Piltdown teeth were enormous and he was quite careless as to whom and what he bit and often very surprised at the resulting damage."

The importance of the GE has been somewhat downgraded by Scientology in recent years, although its presence and effect is still acknowledged. The qualities and capabilities of the *thetan* have always been much more important. They are what Scientology sees as being the optimum expression of what we all really are: telepathy, psychokinetic powers, emission of electronic flow, exteriorization...."A *theta* body," Hubbard wrote, "with its alertness restored is capable of remolding the human body within its field, taking off weight here, restoring it there, changing appearances and even height."


Going hand in hand with Hubbard's "discovery" of the existence of the *theta* was his doctrine concerning "past lives," where the *theta* had made extraordinary voyages and undergone startling adventures, all of which play an important role in determining the health and welfare of the *theta* in whatever state it is in at a given moment. Since time began, *theta* has been acquiring and losing bodies, some on this earth, some elsewhere. The moment of acquiring a new body is a moment of unknowingness for the *thetan*, and though the new body functions, its identity is a mystery. Thus, in Scientology's christening ceremony, the *thetan* meets its own body as well as the bodies of those adults whom it can depend on for care and feeding.

Once life or involvement with a body ends for a *thetan*, it leaves it, making its way directly to what is called an Implant Station, there to be implanted with various goals, the most common of which is the goal To Forget. At the implant station, the *thetan* waits to pick up another body. There is often competition among the *thetans* gathered there because it seems that being a *thetan* without a body is uncomfortable. The minimum time spent waiting, according to Hubbard, is sixty-nine days. Hubbard has said that on a visit to Venus he toured an Implant Station, though there are other such stations located throughout the universe. "The report area for most has been Mars," he wrote in *A History of Man*. "Some women report to stations elsewhere in the Solar System. There are occasional incidents about Earth report stations. The report stations are protected by screens. The last report station on Earth was established in the Pyrenees."

With these preliminary beliefs established, there are certain essential "certainties," or abstracts which we should get into here because they affect the way Scientology examines the universe and then seeks to explain why what happens happens in a particular way, and why behavior occurs in a particular way.


Scientology's foundation stone is "the CYCLE OF ACTION," which Hubbard described in *Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought*. He began by defining the ancient, traditional cycle of birth springing from chaos: growing, decaying, dying, and returning to chaos. This, he said, Scientology expressed "more briefly. The CYCLE OF ACTION IS AN APPARENCY AS FOLLOWS: CREATE, then SURVIVE, then DESTROY; or Creation, Survival, Destruction." The word APPARENCY is important here because according to Hubbard this cycle is an *idea* which we believe to be so because we see it. We suppose it to be so - CONSIDER it - and "then we see it so." He then takes the traditional life-cycle of birth, life, and death, and says, "In Scientology it can be seen that none of these steps are necessary. One considers them so, and so they are 'true.' A man...grows old to the degree that he believes he is growing old." His point is that our agreement makes this cycle be so, but, he adds, it "is not TRUE. It is only APPARENT. It is APPARENT because we believe we see it...because we AGREE that it should be so." Arguing that our belief in this particular "cycle of action" has never cured anyone of anything, or made them more intelligent, Hubbard suggests that the cycle must obviously be wrong. He then suggests that all of the elements of this particular cycle are, in fact, creative acts. Here is how he charts what he means:

CREATE = make, manufacture, construct, postulate, bring into beingness = CREATE.

Create-create-create = create again continuously one moment after the next = SURVIVAL.

Create-counter-create = to create something against a creation - to create one thing and then create something else against = DESTROY.

No creation = an absence of any creation = no creative activity.

These principles are absolutely fundamental to Hubbard's thinking and play a crucial role in the development of the techniques for the achievement of Scientology's enlightenment.


When Hubbard developed Dianetics, he postulated four dynamics. In Scientology, these expanded to eight, because, "as one looks out across the confusion which is life or existence to most people, one can discover eight main divisions to each of which applies the condition of existence. Each division contains a cycle of action." The eight dynamics are:

THE FIRST DYNAMIC - is the urge toward existence as one's self. Here we have individuality expressed fully. This can be called the SELF DYNAMIC.

THE SECOND DYNAMIC - is the urge toward existence as a sexual or bisexual activity. This dynamic actually has two divisions. Second Dynamic (a) is the sexual act itself and the Second Dynamic (b) is the family unit, including the rearing of children. This can be called the SEX DYNAMIC.

THE THIRD DYNAMIC - is the urge toward existence in groups of individuals. Any group or part of an entire class could be considered to be a part of the Third Dynamic. The school, the society, the town, the nation are each part of the Third Dynamic, and each one is a Third Dynamic. This can be called the GROUP DYNAMIC.

THE FOURTH DYNAMIC - is the urge toward mankind. Whereas the white race would be considered a Third Dynamic, all the races would be considered the Fourth Dynamic. This can be called the MANKIND DYNAMIC.

THE FIFTH DYNAMIC - is the urge toward existence of the animal kingdom. This includes all living things whether vegetable or animal. The fish in the sea, the beasts of the field, or of the forest, grass, trees, flowers or anything directly and intimately motivated by life. This can be called the ANIMAL DYNAMIC.

THE SIXTH DYNAMIC - is the urge toward existence as the physical universe. The physical universe is composed of matter, energy, space and time. In Scientology we take the first of each of these words and coin a word, MEST. This can be called the UNIVERSE DYNAMIC.

THE SEVENTH DYNAMIC - is the urge toward existence as or of spirits. Anything spiritual, with or without identity, would come under the heading of the Seventh Dynamic. This can be called the SPIRITUAL DYNAMIC.

THE EIGHTH DYNAMIC - is the urge toward existence as


Infinity. This is also identified as the Supreme Being. It is carefully observed here the the *science* of Scientology does not intrude into the Dynamic of the Supreme Being. This is called the Eighth Dynamic because the symbol of infinity stood upright makes the numeral "8." This can be called the INFINITY or GOD DYNAMIC.

"The keystone of living associations," Hubbard wrote in *Scientology: The Fundamentals of Thought*, is "The ARC triangle." He called it life's "common denominator." The A stands for Affinity in the sense of emotions such as loving or liking. The R represents Reality, that which people agree is real. The C is Communications, the most important of the triangle's three corners because it is "the solvent for all things." Hubbard explains that a communication must consist of something to send to someone who is prepared to receive it. And when people have something in common, the same level of "affinity," why communication is simple. But he points out that as we go lower on the "tone scale" our affinities become more solid, so while on the high levels our communications are erudite and friendly, on the bottom you find that most solid of solids: WAR. "Where the affinity level is hate," he tells us coldly, "the agreement is solid matter, and the communication...bullets."

This tone scale which Hubbard mentions first appeared in Dianetics is a classification of human emotions in a particular order, from the very bottom - apathy - to the very top - enthusiasm. Each level was given a number and arranged in a descending order of desirability. What was important was not the particular number opposite an emotion, but that it was either higher or lower - better or worse - than another emotion.

The tone scale, Hubbard wrote, "plots the descending spiral of life from full vitality and consciousness through half vitality and half consciousness down to death...the whole intent of Scientology is to raise the individual from lower to higher strata on this scale by increasing intelligence, awareness, and ability."

(The tone scale is diagramed on the following page.)


    |-------------------} 40.0    Serenity of Beingness
    |                      8.0    Exhilaration
    |         |---------}  4.0    Enthusiasm
    |         |            3.0    Conservatism
    |         |            2.5    Boredom
    |       THETAN         2.0    Antagonism
    |        PLUS          1.8    Pain
    |        BODY          1.5    Anger
    |       Social         1.2    No Sympathy
    |    training and      1.1    Covert Hostility
    |      education       1.0    Fear
    |   sole guarantee     0.9    Sympathy
    |         of           0.8    Propitiation
    |    sane conduct      0.5    Grief
    |         |            0.374  Making Amends
    |         |            0.05   Apathy
  THETAN      |---------}  0.0    Being a Body (Death)     Failure
SCALE RANGE               -0.2    Being Other Bodies       Regret
Well below                -1.0    Punishing Other Bodies   Blame
body death                -1.3    Responsibility as Blame  Shame
at "0" down               -1.5    Controlling Bodies
to complete               -2.2    Protecting Bodies
unbeingness               -3.0    Owning Bodies
as a thetan               -3.5    Approval From Bodies
    |                     -4.0    Needing Bodies
    |-------------------} -8.0    Hiding


At the same time that Scientology's intention is to raise a person on the tone scale and improve his abilities, it is also Scientology's goal to rehabilitate the *thetan* by removing aberrations. This is critical because if it can be done successfully during this lifetime, the *thetan* will enjoy all future lives free of any kind of problems. If, however, aberrations are only "keyed out," which is merely being released from some portion of the reactive mind, the death of the current body - Scientologists often refer to our bodies as "this piece of meat," or "this meat of ours" - will not free the *thetan* from suffering the reappearance of aberrations. Furthermore, a properly freed *thetan* will not have to return to an implant station to obtain a new body. So Scientology's techniques locate the *thetan* and bring its past experiences out into the open. Like Dianetics, there was one aberration which was absolutely "basic" to the liberation of the *thetan*. "The one basic engram," as Hubbard described it in *Scientology 8-80*, "on top of which all this-life engrams are mere locks...was received by the human race many, many centuries ago, and probably was a supersonic shot in the forehead, chest, and stomach, incapacitating, and reducing, the size and function of the pineal gland."

It was a major "breakthrough" in Scientology when Hubbard announced that the actual sources of aberrations for the *thetan* were the implants themselves. During a *thetan's* sojourn at an implant station the goal To Forget was implanted, and all during previous lives, the *thetan* was having a wide variety of other goals implanted. Thus trapped by this goal To Forget, it became a monumental task to unlock those goals which had been over-implanted by the goal To Forget. This particular goal, according to Hubbard, was implanted on the planet Helatrobus some 38 trillion to 43 trillion years ago. In an HCO Bulletin, July 24, 1963, Hubbard described other implants which had been perpetrated upon *thetans* prior to the Helatrobus Implants.


Helatrobus Implants             38.2 trillion years ago to 52
                                  trillion years ago.
Aircraft Door Implants          216 trillion years ago to 35
                                  trillion years ago.
The Gorilla Goals               319 trillion years ago to 83 trillion
                                  trillion trillion years ago.
The Bear Goals                  83 trillion trillion trillion years
                                  ago to about 40.7 trillion trillion
                                  trillion trillion years ago.
The Glade Implants              40.7 trillion trillion trillion trillion
  (*formerly called               years ago to 5.9 trillion trillion
  Black Thetan*)                  trillion trillion trillion years
The Invisible Picture Goals     5.9 trillion trillion trillion trillion
                                  trillion to a date not fully determined.
The Minion Implants             Not yet determined.
The Story of Creation Implants  70 trillion trillion trillion trillion
                                  trillion trillion trillion years.

Ten days earlier, in an HCO Bulletin dated July 4, 1963, Hubbard revealed in fascinating detail how some of the various goals were "laid in." The Aircraft Goal "was given in the mocked up fuselage of an aircraft with the *thetan* fixed before an aircraft door...."The Gorilla Goals were

given in an amusement park with a single tunnel, a roller coaster and a ferris wheel....The symbol of a Gorilla was always present in the place the goal was given. Sometimes a large gorilla, black, was seen elsewhere than the park. A Mechanical or live gorilla was always seen in the park. This activity was conducted by the Hoipolloi, a group of operators in meat body societies. They were typical carnival people. They let out Concessions for these Implant "Amusement Parks." A pink-striped white shirt with sleeve garters was the uniform of the Hoipolloi. Such a figure often rode on the roller coaster cars. Monkeys were also used on the cars. Elephants sometimes formed part of the equipment. The Hoipolloi or Gorilla goals were laid in with fantastic motion.


Blasts of raw electricity and explosions were both used to lay the Items in. [The Black Thetan goals] were given in a glade surrounded by the stone heads of "black thetans" who spat white energy at the trapped thetan. The trapped thetan was motionless.

Of course all this struck me as being insane garbage. While the wordy repostulations of affinity, reality, and communications, and the cycles of action and the dynamics were all something I could swallow simply because they were primarily the taking of existing concepts or notions or even relationships and rewording them, giving them new names, so that you would see them *his* way, the Goals struck me as being pure science fiction. Talking to a Scientologist one day, trying hard to maintain objectivity and an open mind, I suddenly blurted out that believing in something like the Gorilla Goals was stretching it. The scientologist looked mildly surprised. "Why?" he said.

"*Gorilla Goals*?" I shot back.

"Well," he said thoughtfully, "I might have agreed at one time, except that a couple of months ago I got this bad toothache. And I knew there was no *reason* for me to have it; I'd gone to the dentist and there was nothing wrong with my teeth. So I sat down and thought about why I had this toothache. And all of a sudden, I saw a gorilla."

"A gorilla?"

The scientologist smiled, almost apologetically. "I know how that sounds. But I did. I saw this very big gorilla."

"...Because your toothache had something to do with a goal connected to the time you were a gorilla, or something?" I said.

"Something like that," the scientologist said calmly.

The weird thing is that just at this point, where Hubbard runs the risk of really losing me, he combines a couple of these elements to produce yet another principle which is not wildly fanciful.


The idea that your having a goal-created energy which had actual mass led him to define something he called GPM: "goals-problems-mass." The idea quite simply was that in past lives a person acquired, one way or another, pleasantly or unpleasantly, a wide variety of goals, all of varying natures of importance. But each, because it was a goal, acquired certain obstacles it had to overcome. Problems arose, and as such, as the mind or *theta* grappled with these problems, mass accumulated. It may have been solely in the form of stored-up energy, but it was definitely mass, and it was, according to Hubbard, measurable. In a book called *Dianetics: 1955*, Hubbard had written: "If there were no energy being created by the awareness-of-awareness unit (the *thetan*), then one would be at a loss to account for mental energy pictures, for these things, being made at a tremendously rapid rate, have considerable mass in them - mass which is measurable on a thing which is as common and everyday as a pair of bathroom scales." The E-Meter.

In what I humbly would have to call an astounding revelation made known in an HCO Bulletin of May 11, 1963, known as the "Heaven" bulletin, L. Ron Hubbard announced that GPM implants had been done in Heaven. "The contents of this HCO Bulletin," he wrote, "discover the apparent underlying impulses of religious zealotism and the source of the religious mania and insanity which terrorized Earth over the ages and has given religion the appearance of insanity." In no uncertain terms, he explained why and how the implants occurred. "For a long while, some people have been cross with me for my lack of co-operation in believing in a Christian Heaven, God and Christ. I have never said I didn't disbelieve in a Big Thetan but there was certainly something very corny about Heaven *et al*. Now I have to apologize. There was a Heaven. Not too unlike, in cruel betrayal, the heaven of the Assassins in the 12th Century, who, like everyone else,

THE REAL TRUTH 115 dramatized the whole, track implants - if a bit more so....The symbol of the crucified Christ is very apt indeed. It's the symbol of a *thetan* betrayed...." Hubbard knew this because he had visited Heaven twice. "The first time I arrived and the moment of the implant To Forget was dated at 43,891,611,177 years, 344 days, 10 hours, 20 minutes and 40 seconds from 10:02 1/2 P.M. Daylight Greenwich Time May 9, 1963. The second series was dated to the moment of the implant To Forget as 42,681,459,477,315 years, 132 days, 18 hours, 20 minutes and 15 seconds from 11:02 1/2 P.M. Daylight Greenwich Time May 9, 1963." The implants, Hubbard wrote, were electronic and done on a nonvisible *thetan* who arrived by ship in a doll's body. Twenty-nine goals were made the first visit, 21 the second. Each time the first three goals were identical: To Forget, To Remember, To Go Away.

All of what Scientology believes and theorizes can, Hubbard explains in *The Creation of Human Ability*, be broadly divided into two general categories: Scientology and Para-Scientology.

Under Scientology we group those things of which we can be certain and only those things of which we can be certain.... Para-Scientology is that large bin which includes all greater or lesser uncertainties. Here are the questionable things, the things of which the common normal observer cannot be sure with a little study. Here are theories, here are groups of data, even groups commonly accepted as "known." Some of the classified bodies of data which fall in Para-Scientology are: Dianetics, incidents on the "wholetrack," the immortality of Man, the existence of God, engrams containing pain and unconsciousness and yet all perception, prenatals, clears, character, and many other things which, even when closely and minutely observed, still are not certain things to those who observe them. Such things have relative truth. They have to some a high degree of reality; they have to others non-existence. They require a highly specialized system in order to observe them at all. Working with such uncertainties one can produce broad and sweeping results: one can make the ill


well again, one can right even the day which went most wrong; but those things which require highly specialized communication systems remain uncertain to many....Also under the heading of Para-Scientology one would place such things as past lives, mysterious influences, astrology, mysticism, religion, psychology, psychiatry, nuclear physics, and any other science based on theory.

Rather than be any sort of refutation of Scientology's beliefs and theories, the notion of a Scientology and a Para-Scientology confounds only because with continued development of various avenues of thinking, it became increasingly difficult to separate what was a concrete Scientological "consideration," and what represented Para-Scientology's "highly specialized system in order to observe them at all." That there is no true division between the two categories is evident from the Axioms, which represent the fundamental substance of all which Scientology believes, and which Hubbard calls "commonly held considerations,"


I have already pointed out that in explaining the origin of the word Scientology, Hubbard never mentioned the German social psychologist, Dr. A. Nordenholz. Nor does Hubbard acknowledge any possible debt to Nordenholz in his extensive listings of his researches into Eastern and Western thinking. But Nordenholz is important.

Very little is known about this man who wrote several books which examine the social phenomenon of the individual


against the concept of the "self" as created by the conscious mind. He was born in Buenos Aires in 1862, the son of the German consul there, and returned to his fatherland where he became a farmer, scientist, Doctor of Law and Philosophy, and was interested in the links binding economic and social problems both in the question of industrial production and in the question of social identities. In 1904, he joined Dr. Alfred Ploetz to found a periodical in Germany called *The Racial, Social, Biological Archive, Including Racial and Social Hygiene*. It was published regularly until July of 1944, and though Dr. Nordenholz's contributions disappear during the 1920's, it has been speculated that the Archive was an important source of much of the racial thinking of Hitler Germany. In 1934, Nordenholz published a book called *Scientologie: Wissenschaft von der Beschaffenheit und der Tauglichkeit des Wissens (The Science of the Constitution & Usefulness of Knowledge and Knowing). It was painstakingly and faithfully translated into English recently by Woodward R. McPheeters.

Nordenholz begins by stating that the problem of a science of knowing or knowledge, which he names Scientologie or Eidologie, is isolating knowledge as "a particular appearance of the world." "What is Knowing?" he goes on to ask. "What IS Knowledge? What can we know, what must we know about Knowledge/Knowing, to do justice to and to justify the world? The question is thus nothing less than self-knowing, determination of the nature of self, and also of self-realization and self-understanding of Knowledge/Knowing. Is this possible? If possible, how can the systemization of Knowledge/Knowing itself be accomplished? How can a Science of Knowledge/Knowing be produced?"

Nordenholz goes on to establish certain definitions and concludes that "the world is nothing but knowledge, merely an extraction from knowing....Only out of the equally valued mutual operation of Knowledge/Knowing as shaper &


creator, and world as created & shaped, is it possible to arrive at the true science of the world....Out of this circumstance comes the right of Scientologie to treat the world as belonging to its counterpart, as an appendage of the consciousness."

Having thus established the relationship between knowledge/knowing and the world, Nordenholz declares that "Un-aware thinking within the world has always simply perceived THE state or current condition." He explains that consciousness can be raised to a position of independence, or isolation, and then states: "The consciousness, which always remains a part and particular creation of the world, is incompetent to create from a nothingness because of this very worldliness. In order for the consciousness to be able to create, it has to first find a fountainhead source out of which it can create, and this Something is a Beingness."

Nordenholz next introduces the notion of Axioms as a decreed system to get out of a cycle he identifies as: "the systemization of consciousness & reason demands knowing..." versus "knowing demands a system of consciousness & reason." He defines axioms as "comprehensions, propositions, declarations, which are initially set in place *as if* they stand of their own power and dignity, *as if* they were capable of, but do not need, a verification or confirmation from another source." He then goes on to structure Scientologie as follows:

1. In axioms: exposition of the axioms and the axiom systems of consciousness.

2. In systems: erection of the forming or moulding system of the consciousnesses, the comprehension system of the reason, all form the axiom system.

3 "In demonstration: justification of the produced comprehension systems and with that, working back to the underlying basis of the axiom systems.

4. In study of the origin, nature, methods, and limits of know]edge: establishment of the Total-system of sciences from the foundation of Scientologie systems of knowledge and comprehension.


The most important axiom, to appreciate Nordenholz's possible influence on L. Ron Hubbard, was the Axiom of Mediation: "The consciousness, nominated as the creator of the world, presupposes a wellspring, a source, out of which it can scoop; a Being, which somehow and in some measure can be reached thru consciousness, but which exists there by itself BEFORE and independent from the consciousness. The assumption of a creator activity of the consciousness is dependent upon the Standing Orders of self-primordial, free, detached, absolute Beings, the By-Itself-Being(s)."

What interested Nordenholz was the eventual relationship between an individual and what is called "society": how his role is defined, how his productivity is affected, what freedom actually means, how power is achieved. If the exposition of all these ideas is difficult and often bordering on the unreadable, it is in part because prior to this, no one had ever attempted to organize a system of thought on the principle that knowledge/knowing might be isolated as an entity called "beingness."

To understand L. Ron Hubbard and Scientology, it is not necessary to suggest he knew of the Nordenholz book and borrowed freely; it is only important to know that Nordenholz had attempted, as early as 1927, to establish a working thesis with regard to what he called "the systemization of consciousness...." Here was the notion of the existence of a "fountain-head source out of which it (consciousness) can create," here was the requirement that "all our comprehensions have to fit themselves into the axiomatically founded system." If Hubbard did in fact know of Nordenholz and his theories, the only thing lacking for him would have been a sense of adventure, of extraterrestrial panache to suggest that what this Beingness might be is something extremely attractive and powerful. For this, he might have found ample inspiration in a book written in 1938 by R. Buckminster Fuller, father of geodesic structures, called *Nine Chains to the Moon*.


*Nine Chains to the Moon* is a long book composed of forty-three brief chapters, each with a snappy title such as "E = Mc2 = Mrs. Murphy's Horse Power." Each is an expository statement about some aspect of life on this earth, written in a style which is quixotic and hard-hitting, made graphic by extensive use of capitalized words, with whiz-bang conversions of complex abstractions: "The *principle of teleology* implies that the *adequacy and effect of conclusion are directly proportional to the degree of ramification and penetration of the original inclusion*" - into everyday metaphors: "The consumption and digestion of facts and statistics is somewhat like eating and chewing hay and thistles. There is nourishment in them in their raw state, to be sure, but a cow is needed to convert them into milk." All of it is based on a premise which Fuller explains in An Outline: "The sum-total of human desire to survive is dominant over the sum-total of the impulse to destroy." After discussing industry and machinery and Henry Ford and the appearance of alloys and our industrial conceptualization of houses and objects devoid of any insights into the higher meanings of existence, suffering only to protect, maintain and abet life, Fuller tells a short story involving "Mr. Jones...an amateur hyper-short wave radio expert, *and* a lovely young lady from XK-planet."

After meeting the young lady, and learning of her planet and its distance from the earth and how XK time is bogglingly different from our time, Jones asks about the X-ian philosophy.

"First [the young lady says in answer] we evolved a completely ABSTRACTED, DEPERSONALIZED, UN-SELFED BIBLE, which is a rationalized account of the GAME OF LIFE, segregating its *Unity of totality* into *chaotic multiplicity* and subsequently *rationally recomposing* it to *unity*, to *symmetry* of *unity* and to *completeness* through *synchronization*, which is the *checkmating* of *time*, against which the game is played by the totality of TRUE COMPREHENSION."

This attitude [wrote Fuller] caused Jones to realize with astonishment that his earth Bible, through its mysteriously


confused insistence upon explaining the reality of truth in terms of grossly imperfect interpretation of the tangible man mechanism, constantly provokes inability to explain the logically superman realities of totality; with the result that, in terms of the imperfect self mechanism, understanding of the realities has to be unreasonably recognized by a SURRENDERING BELIEFS IN MIRACLES, these miracles in turn evoking an awe-ful, fear-ful, wide-eyed, secretive, cultish herding around SECRET THEORIES OF EXPLANATION OF REALITY in the TERMS OF UNREALITY, which, thought Jones, is certainly no fun.

After explaining the game of life, the young lady then went on to explain the X-IAN Resolution. The Resolution is long, goes on for several pages, and is written in that same pounding, all-caps declamatory style. "RESOLVED," it opens, "to solve agelong problems NOW in terms of self instead of egotistically blaming primary cause on some *other thing or being*, simply saying to ourselves: SELF! YOU CAN ONLY BE HURT IF, WHERE, and WHEN YOU ARE VULNERABLE." The Resolution goes on to state that all existence is, in effect, an assumption. Jones and the young lady finally *understand* each other and achieve *communication*.

All this background is basic to what Scientology purports to believe and practice as its tenets. Its intention is to produce at first a *preclear*, formerly called a Mest Clear; then a *clear*, formerly called a *theta clear* and finally, penultimately, an *operating thetan*. The difference between the last two is very important. A *clear* is someone who is *at cause* over matter, energy, space, and time. "In the mental sense," Church of Scientology Minister Bob Thomas emphasized when we discussed Scientology's various states of being.

What Scientology means by the phrase *at cause*, with its companion number, *at effect*, is simply that if something is bothering you, if you are tormented by whatever kind of inner aberration, you must not treat it symptomatically, which


is *at effect* - the aberration's effect on you - but where it really began, *at cause*. "When you're clear," Thomas said, "you're free in the mental sense, but you want to extend your influence and power and so on." Thus becoming an *operating thetan* is not merely being *at cause* mentally, but "at cause over matter, energy, space, and time in the *physical*, total sense." When I suggested that this implied that an *operating thetan* could levitate, rise right up into the air and hang there, Thomas sat forward in his chair and said, "Right. These are the ultimate goals that are *envisioned*. I'm saying that these are the ultimate things it is hoped man is capable of; if he really has those potentials, which we assume he has. One of the basic Scientology viewpoints is that absolutes are not attainable in the physical universe, but you can get more and more and more free, and that's what's happening in Scientology: people are finding out more and more about themselves, and the more they find out about themselves, the freer they are. And we envision no ultimate limitation on how free an individual can be. Beyond the state of clear, there are these grades of operating thetans. When you're *clear*, you're free in the mental sense, but you want to extend your influence and power as a spiritual being. And that road is a higher road which Mr. Hubbard is researching at this moment."

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