Flavour & more chemicals

Flavours

Adding flavour
Sense of smell is very important to fish in their underwater environment since visibility through water can be obscured by suspended mud or other particles. Therefore many kinds of fish rely heavily on their senses of taste and smell to help them navigate, avoid predators and find food.

There is a huge range of synthetic liquid flavours available. Most come with instructions on how much to use. Follow them. Fish can be but off by too intense a smell. Usually you need about a teaspoon (roughly 5m1) for every 450g (1 Ib) of dry bait or loosefeed, but you may only need a few drops.

There is endless scope, too, at your local supermarket. Honey, milk shake flavours, cake flavouring and sauces such as tomato ketchup can all be used as liquid flavours.

There are at least three different types of flavour.

  • Ethyl Alcohol
  • Glycerol based
  • Oils including Essential Oils

Ethyl Alcohol

The flavour is based on ethyl alcohol.Itīs very soluble in water and therefore a very good choice in cold water.
but that is also a disadvantage because when you boil the boilies the flavour is also very soluble.
You can combat this by using some more flavour or by flavouring them a second time after boiling or you simply use a dip.

Glycerol based

This kind of flavour is also good soluble in water but at low tempretures not as good as the Ethyl flavour.
when you boil the boilies it will also be soluble in the water but not as much as the Ethyl flavour,
therefore itīs not necessary to use more flavour or flavour them a second time

Oils and Essential Oils

This kind of flavour is not soluble in water and should not be used in cold water without an emulsifier.
Itīs a good flavour type for the summer and in general warm water.You donīt have much problems when you boil your
bait the amont of flavour soluble in the water is very low and therefore it is absolutely not necessary to flavour them a
second time.

Some words about the amount to be used in your bait.In general donīt use more than listed on the bottle.
Normally you should use less than that,in my opinion 3ml per 500g will be good for most flavours.Only for Ethyl alcohol flavour 4ml would be better.The essential oils are extracts of plants and fruits and are highly concentrated
You have only to use some drops per 500g

These flavours can divided into three groups

  • Fruit
  • Fish and Meat
  • Cream flavour

Fruit

This type of flavour contains nearly every fruit you can imagine and some that are not natural.
Itīs mostly ethyl alcohol and glycerol and therefore good to use in winter,although in my experience
sometimes a fish flavour works better;this kind works pretty well the whole year.

Fish and Meat

A good choice in winter and autum but there is one problem.Itīs mostly oil flavours and therefore not soluble in winter
water.But an emulsifier will do the trick , there are some glycerol based flavours and these are really successful.

Cream flavour

The Carp love this type of taste.This type often is a combination of a fruit flavour and the cream component.
Itīs mostly ethyl or glycerol based and therefore good all over the year.

some examples of flavour:

Crayfish, Fresh Water Mussel. Chocolate MaltStrawberry, Banana, Cream, Toffee, Chocolate, Maple, Tutti Frutti, Peanut, Lobster, Blue Cheese, Coconut, Squid, Salmon, Rose, Liver, Peach +, Cranberry, Forest fruits, Condensed milk,Blackcurrant Cordial,Tangerine,Honey Essance,Chocolate Cream,Strawberry Oil,Fishmeal, Tutti Fruitti and Ecstasy.TUTTI FRUTTI · CRAB & MUSSEL · GREEN LIPPED MUSSEL · SQUID & OCTOPUS · PLUM ROYALE · MULTI-PLEX , Scopex

 

Attractors

The first attractor I use in all my baits is Betaine HCI. This really does make a difference to any bait and if you are not including this ingredient in your bait you are losing out. Betaine is a naturally derived attractor. It is found in minute quantities in marine molluscs, fungus, yeasts, fish and plants. It is closely related to the amino acid glycine, which has been a successful amino acid in many carp baits over the years. It is used widely in aquaculture as a stimulant that makes fish feed. Because it is a natural product, it can be used at different levels in a base mix without adverse effect. I tend to use 2gms of Betaine HCI to the pound, although friends have done well at higher levels. Green Lipped Mussel Extract is a natural source of betaine and I like to use this in my Big Fish Mix boilies to boost the pull of the added Betaine HCI. This ingredient is cultivated in New Zealand and has a very distinctive taste asnd seafood smell. I have used this natural marine extract at up to I ounce per pound and been very successful with it. I don't like GLM in a milk protein bait, so rely entirely on betaine HCI in these sorts of baits. All anglers, including match anglers ignore Betaine and Green Lipped Mussel at their peril!

The second indispensible ingredient is Nutramino. This is a version of Minamino, which has been used in carp baits successfully for many years. It is a liquid food intended for use by humans with digestive problems. Just 25ml of the liquid is the equivalent of 3oz of pure digested protein! This liquid food additive contains a wealth of nutritional attractors and I add to my liquid ingredients at 15ml per four eggs. Nutramino has had a massive track record in carp fishing for many years. I also use Nutramino as a bait dip in the winter months, soaking my hookbaits in the sweet red carp attractor. In the summer and autumn, I tend to lightly coat all my baits in a quantity of all my liquid ingredients - and Nutramino is a vital part of that glug.

Liver in its various forms also has a long track record as a carp attractor, and is my third essential ingredient. I use liver powder in all my baits- all year round - I rate it that highly. Scientific experiments have shown that a totally blind carp can detect and be attracted by as little as one part of liver extract for 18 million parts water! The carp in question turned around and snapped voraciously at the source of the liver in the laboratory tank!

The final ingredient I won't leave out is kelp - a form of seaweed. This is a lovely ingredient which gives the bait a nice smell and taste. Kelp is a rich source of vitamins and minerals, which are an important component of any genuine food bait. I also believe carp have are instinctively attracted by rich sources of vitamins and minerals. Kelp is available in both liquid and powder forms and I prefer to combine the two in all my fishmeal and birdfood based-baits. Liquid kelp has a unique nutritional profile and certainly improves any bait. It is a thick dark liquid and turns baits very dark. I prefer to use dark baits rather than light ones to make them less obvious to waterfowl. Coots and ducks are the bait angler's nightmare

Paul Selman

Boilie dips

Boilie dips are primarily designed for summer use because they are oil based and therefore leak off more flavour in warmer water temperatures.

Dips are a great way to enhance your shelf lifes, simply place a few baits into the pot and soak, remove when ready and use as you normally would. I find most of the dip pots sold are too small to get your fingers into to remove the baits after soaking, so a pair of forceps are useful to remove them after soaking. I always carry forceps as a matter of course anyway, they can be invaluable for unhooking a fish which has been awkwardly hooked, and can save you wearing monster crab flavoured clothing when trying to remove dipped baits!

In summary then, give the shelf-life boilies a try. If you are still not sure what to use, don't be embarrassed to ask. Any good tackle dealer will happily give advice if you say where you are fishing and what you are trying to catch. Take a few different types with you if you can, and try the flavours and dips. Experiment. Try something different, don't just follow the crowd

 

Food dips 

Food dips come into their own in winter when you want the attraction to stay lower in the water, nearer the hookbait, when the carp’s metabolism has slowed down and they are not so active. Food dips are also mega appetite stimulators inducing carp to feed when they are not necessarily hungry.

 

Additives

Additives are products which increase the palatability of the base mix. These are usually powders, but there are liquid additives as well, such as oils and amino compounds.


These bait ingredients really are worthwhile considering when you are making up a bait you would like to pre-bait with or use the same bait over a longer period of time. When adding these to the bait, you are building a longer lasting taste because these ingredients don't leak out of the bait the same as flavour does. For example let's look at a 50/50 basemix  with some strawberry flavour and liquid sweetener added. If this bait has been in the water for a fairly long period of time, most of the strawberry flavour will have gone and you're left with a slightly sweet bland tasting boilie. This is a completely different bait, in the carp's point of view, to the one you introduce when fishing.


It is fair to assume that big carp are a bit shy and frequently these will clean up after all the others have had their fill.
On frequently fished waters the big carp will learn to eat these lightly flavoured baits, i.e. the ones that have been in the water for some time. Fishing with very lightly flavoured baits you would often get these big ones, but the problem with these baits is that you haven't got the attraction you otherwise have . So you aren't getting the most out of your fishing.


When adding additives to your bait you are introducing a different bait all together.The taste will remain constant for a longer period of time and you're confronting the bigger carp with something completely different.
Let's take a look at what we can achieve with additives. For example we are fishing a 50/50 or yellow seed bait with mulberry florentine flavour, adding a small amount of mulberry oil and some mulberry appetite stimulator.
We are fishing a bait on the mulberry theme from the moment the bait enters the water till it is completely soggy with water.
Carp homing in on the mulberry flavour and oil get a mulberry taste and big carp polishing of the final few boilies also get a mulberry taste. There for the later will more readily take a boilie which has just entered the water.  

 

Essential Oils 

Essential Oils are the most misunderstood and under used liquid attractors on the market, and there are two reasons for this: (1) most anglers do not understand what they are, or how to use them; (2) they've always been very expensive compared to flavours.  So, lets have a good look at them.
     

What are they?  They are entirely natural liquids obtained from various plants and trees around the world, and they are very complex substances.  Each one contains between 70 and 80 constituents and every oil has a different make-up: they also vary from thin and watery, like Ginger Oil, to thick and syrupy like Patchouli Oil.  Some will partly absorb into water while others are immune to it, and just float on the surface.  I think anglers have missed out in the past by trying to use them as a flavour, but I believe they work better as a taste.
     

What exactly does that mean?  If you've added an oil to luncheon meat for instance, your chosen oil may not 'leak off' at all from the bait to attract fish upstream to it, which is how a flavour works.  However, should a fish come across your bait on its travels it will almost certainly take it when it investigates it, because the oily bait tastes nice.  That gives you a lot of uses for Essential Oils; in boilies, in pastes, on floaters, maggots; in particular on baits used for stalking fish, where you can put your offering right on its nose.
     

What levels do I use?  This is where most people get it wrong.  For years carp anglers, almost the only ones who use oils, have been quoting six drops of that,  twelve drops of this; the brave ones quote twenty four drops, which is a mere one mil.  I always use them at my recommended flavour levels - 1.5 to 2mls per tin of corn, meat, pint of maggots, added to the water used to dampen groundbait, etc. They are natural products, and as such its nearly impossible to overload most of them.  I once soaked some luncheon meat chunks in neat Black Pepper Oil overnight, yet when I used them on some Trent chub their savage bites almost pulled the rod in.
     

Why are Oils so expensive?  Because so much plant material is needed to supply just a small amount of liquid.

Essential Oils vary greatly in viscosity, with some very thick and sticky while others are just the opposite.

 

Essential Amino Acids and Protein Quality

If the essential amino acid requirements of fish are known, it should be possible to meet these needs in culture systems in a number of ways from different food proteins or combinations of food proteins.

Phenylalanine is spared by tyrosine. It is not known to be chemically modified nor rendered unavailable by the harsh conditions to which feedstuff proteins are normally subjected during processing. Measurement of phenylalanine in proteins is uncomplicated so that the provision and evaluation of phenylalanine in proteins in practical diets presents little difficulty.

Lysine is a basic amino acid. In addition to the a -amino acid group normally bound in peptide linkage, it also contains a second, a -amino group. This a -amino group must be free and reactive, otherwise the lysine, although chemically measurable, will not be biologically available. During the processing of feedstuff proteins the a -amino group of lysine may react with non-protein molecules present in the feedstuff to form additional compounds that render the lysine biologically unavailable.

Methionine is spared by cystine. However, measurement of the methionine content of feed proteins is not easy as the amino acid is subject to oxidation during processing. After processing, methionine may be present as such or as the sulphoxide or as the sulphone. The sulphoxide may be formed from methionine during acid hydrolysis of the feed protein prior to measurement of its any-no acid composition. Acid hydrolysis of proteins before analysis disturbs the original equilibrium between the two compounds so that the composition of the hydrolysate no longer reflects that of the protein. In determining the methionine content of pure proteins, oxidation of the amino acid to methionine sulphone is normally quantitative. In the case of feed proteins, however, this will not reveal how much methionine or methionine sulphoxide was present in the protein prior to performate oxidation and hydrolysis.

Methionine sulphoxide may have some biological value for fish which may have some capability of reconverting it to methionine and thus partially make up for some of the methionine oxidized during processing.

Methods have recently been reported for measurement of methionine in proteins using an iodoplatinate reagent before and after reduction with titanium trichloride, to give values for both methionine and the sulphoxide in the original protein. A method for measuring methionine specifically by cyanogen bromide cleavage has also been described. Both methods remain to be independently assessed. Microbiological assay of methionine in feed proteins is a valuable tool although there is the danger that oxides of methionine may differ in their activity for micro-organisms and misrepresent values

5. QUANTITATIVE REQUIREMENTS OF AMINO ACID

Quantitative requirements by salmonids for the ten indispensable amino acids were determined by feeding linear increments of one amino acid at a time in a test diet containing an amino acid profile identical with whole egg protein except for the amino acid tested. Replicate groups of fish were fed the diet treatments until gross differences appeared in the growth of test lots. An Almquist plot of growth response indicated the level of amino acids required for maximum growth under those specific test conditions. Diets were designed to contain protein at or slightly below the optimum protein requirement for that species and test condition to assure maximum utilization of the limiting amino acid. A comparison of the requirements for the ten indispensable amino acids between species is shown in Table 2.

A recent innovation has been the use in test diets of proteins relatively deficient in a given essential amino acid. Thus combinations of fishmeal and zein have been used in test diets to define the requirement of rainbow trout for arginine. Diets containing different relative amounts of casein and gelatin showed that an increase in the level of protein-bound arginine from 11 to 17 g/kg resulted in a significant increase in the growth of channel catfish.

Table 2 Amino Acid Requirements of Seven Animals 1/

 

Amino acid

Eel fingerling

Carp 

Channel catfish

Chinook salmon fingerling

Chick

Young Pig

Rat

Arginine

3.9 (1.7/42)

4.3 (1.65/38.5)


6.0 (2.4/40)

6.1 (1.1/18)

1.5 (0.2/13)

1.0 (0.2/19)

Histidine

1.9 (0.8/42)



1.8 (0.7/40)

1.7 (0.3/18)

1.5 (0.2/13)

2.1 (0.4/19)

Isoleucine

3.6 (1.5/42)

2.6 (1.0/38.5)


2.2 (0.9/41)

4.4 (0.8/18)

4.6 (0.6/13)

3.9 (0.5/13)

Leucine

4.1 (1.7/42)

3.9 (1.5/38.5)


3.9 (1.6/41)

6.7 (1.2/18)

4.6 (0.6/13)

4.5 (0.9/19)

Lysine

4.8 (2.0/42)


5.1 (1.23/24.0)

5.0 (2.0/40)

6.1 (1.1/18)

4.7 (0.65/13)

5.4 (1.0/19)

Methionine 2/

4.5 (2.1/42) 3/

3.1 (1.2/38.5)

2.3 (0.56/24.0)

4.0 (1.6/40)3/

4.4 (0.8/18)

3.0 (0.6/20)

3.0 (0.6/20)

Phenylalanine 4/




5.1 (2.1/41)5/

7.2 (1.3/18)

3.6 (0.45/13)

5.3 (0.9/17)

Threonine

3.6 (1.5/42)



2.2 (0.9/40)

3.3 (0.6/18)

3.0 (0.4/13)

3.1 (0.2/19)

Tryptophan

1.0 (0.4/42)



0.5 (0.2/40)

1.1 (0.2/18)

0.8 (0.2/25)

1.0 (0.2/19)

Valine

3.6 (1.5/42)



3.2 (1.3/40)

4.4 (0.8/18)

3.1 (0.4/13)

3.1 (0.4/13)

 

Vitamins and minerals: 

There is much to know for these additions into a feed. Too much can poison the fish and too little can cause short and long term deficiencies ( poor appetite ,poor growth, hemorrhaging, faded color, anorexia, muscular dystrophy).  There are many vita-mineral  premixes used in salmon and trout diets but they don't take into consideration the digestive system of a long gut fish. There are a minimum of 64 vitamins and minerals that need to be in a well rounded carp diet such as Desy's. Some are critical with Stay C being one of the most important. Some C is lost through steam and extrusion so long lasting C and lots of it is important.  

  • Vit. B1: Is effective when one co-enzym to the increase within stimulate. The help the score and the nervous system and trouble towards the heart and muscle until one normal working.
  • Vit. B2: Help the visibility, takes care of sound skin and tart. Help the metabolisme with protein, vetten and carbohydrates.
  • Vit. B6: (Pyridoxine) assimilate protein, help the transposition with Tryptophan within niacine, reduced muscular spasm. Structure resistance worn versus infection.
  • Vit. B12: (cobalamin) appetizing, improved spiergroei and the steady Regenereert the rode bloedcellen.
  • Vit. D: vit. D is being opgeslagen within the liver. Carp has not one want upon extra vit. D addition. Some guess one tiny amount vit. D upon, yet one's yonder not truly data well-known what Vit. D does.
  • Vit. E: vit. E unable to come biological oxidation and pitcher problem prevent with geoxideerde vetten within the metabolisme.
  • P: Rutine() help the traffic and resistance versus infection, unable to come vit. C oxidation.
  • iron: lemon() versus weariness, sickness, resistance. Improved the increase and the fruitfulness, unable to come the trash with the vit. E spare.
Manganese: Sulphate() help the metabolisme with the aminozuur Tyrosine. Prime until the skin. Help the transposition with iron and hemoglobine. Versus tape streamer within the spawning season

 

Pukka Salmon Oil                                                           

Pukka Salmon Oil is a high grade oil from Norway. It has a superb taste and excellent attraction properties coupled with a high nutritional value. A must in any fish mix.

 

Amino/Betaine                                                               

Betaine Hydrochloride has proved to be highly stimulatory to both primary and secondary receptors. It has also been found that it is more effective when used in combination with Amino Acids. Therefore, our Betaine contains numerous free Amino Acids, resulting in an extremely effective attractor for all seasons.

 

Advanced Bait Soaks/Dips                                                     

These dips contain a proven combination of Amino Acids, Amino Betaine and the Aminol. Available in Squid, Cranberry and Caviar, Natural High, Sweet Cream and Cranberry, Mandarin, Forest Berry and Sweet Cream & Lobster, Chocolate Malt, Classic Strawberry and Pukka Plum.

 

Liver Powder                                                                 

A pure very high quality powder rich in vitamins and minerals. A very successful additive in any fish, meat or bird food baits, for all seasons

 

SUPERSENSE PALATANTS

Designed to enhance your bait and also to increase the pulling power and palability of your finished product. The supersense range will also help to maintain the smell of your carp bait when fishing over silt or in weed, which can sometimes mask the smell of your bait